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9 Jun 001 Measuring Students’ Critical Thinking: Problems and Possible Solutions Aggi Tiwari RN PhD Department of Nursing Studies The University of Hong.

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Presentation on theme: "9 Jun 001 Measuring Students’ Critical Thinking: Problems and Possible Solutions Aggi Tiwari RN PhD Department of Nursing Studies The University of Hong."— Presentation transcript:

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2 9 Jun 001 Measuring Students’ Critical Thinking: Problems and Possible Solutions Aggi Tiwari RN PhD Department of Nursing Studies The University of Hong Kong

3 9 Jun 002 Measuring CT: Some problems & possible solutions §(1) Is the conception of CT defensible?

4 9 Jun 003 Conceptualization of CT §Diverse: l problem-solving (Watson & Glaser, 1980) l deductive-inductive reasoning (Ennis, 1962, 1987) l reflective skepticism (McPeck, 1981) l questioning assumptions (Brookfield, 1987) l dialectical thinking (Paul, 1993) l purposeful, self-regulatory judgment (Facione & Facione, 1997) §Lack of universal agreement

5 9 Jun 004 Different interpretations of CT Different criteria of performance Results comparable?

6 9 Jun 005 Justifications for adopting a particular conception of CT §Is the definition broad enough to encompass the key features of CT? §Is the definition relevant for the study? §What is the scientific basis for the conception? §Is direct testing possible?

7 9 Jun 006 Conception of CT adopted: An example §“purposeful self-regulatory judgment manifests itself in giving reasoned consideration to the evidence, context, standards, methods, and conceptual structures within which a decision is made about what to believe or what to do” (Facione & Facione, 1997, p.1)

8 9 Jun 007 Justifications for adopting Facione & Facione’s definition of CT §(i) Broad enough to encompass: l deductive-inductive reasoning l problem-solving l reflective skepticism l dialectical thinking

9 9 Jun 008 Justifications for adopting Facione & Facione’s definition of CT §(ii) Relevant for participants of study: l Practicing nurses need to - think logically suspend judgment temporarily reason from different perspectives regularly monitor own reasoning

10 9 Jun 009 Justifications for adopting Facione & Facione’s definition of CT §(iii) Derived from rigorous scientific methods, has interdisciplinary consensus, subjected to on-going empirical testing. §(iv) Can be tested directly: l CCTDI l CCTST l HCTSR

11 9 Jun 0010 Measuring CT: Some problems & possible solutions §(2) What procedures should be used to test the impact of a specific intervention on students’ CT?

12 9 Jun 0011 Study Design - Example A §Time Series (Cook & Campbell, 1979) §Pretest measure - students’ CT assessed before implementation of PBL §Post-treatment measures - measurements of students’ CT taken on completion

13 9 Jun 0012 Study Design - Example A §Criticism: l No control group - would students’ CT be enhanced because of some other reasons? l Would the effects of the intervention be retained?

14 9 Jun 0013 Study Design - Example B GroupPretestExp. Post-exp.Stage E O1O1 X O 2 O3O3 C O1O1 O2O2 O3O3

15 9 Jun 0014 Study Design - Example B §Control group provides a baseline to evaluate the effects of the intervention. §Need to overcome the design deficits in nonequivalent control group design e.g. pretest. §Would the effects of the intervention be retained after the intervening period? l The addition of a post-experimental follow-up study.

16 9 Jun 0015 Measuring CT: Some problems & possible solutions §(3) Are the CT measuring tools valid and reliable?

17 9 Jun 0016 Choosing CT measuring tools: Some considerations §CT is complex, not a collection of simple skills - unlikely that a single tool can cover all dimensions of CT. §Combination of measurements - the strengths of each measuring method reflected in the overall results, deficiencies of one method compensated by the others.

18 9 Jun 0017 Choosing CT measuring tools: Some considerations §Both the skills and dispositional aspects of CT should be measured. §The CT measuring tool should be based on a defensible conception of CT. §Constructed at a level appropriate for those taking the test. §Is the tool culturally sensitive?

19 9 Jun 0018 Examples of CT measuring tools §Example (i): l CCTDI - ‘one-shot’ measurement of HK and Australian nursing students’ CT §Example (ii): l CCTDI + interviews - repeated measures of experimental and control groups §Example (iii): l CCTDI + HCTSR - pretest and posttest of HK nursing students’ CT

20 9 Jun 0019 Measuring CT: Some problems & possible solutions §(4) How to ensure that the interpretation is culturally sensitive?

21 9 Jun 0020 The case of the intellectually biased students??? §Disposition toward truth-seeking: l “being eager to seek the best knowledge in a given context, courageous about asking questions, and honest and objective about pursuing inquiry even if the findings do not support one’s self-interests or one’s preconceived opinions” (Facione, Sanchez & Facione, 1994, p.6).

22 9 Jun 0021 The case of the intellectually biased students??? Exp. GroupControl Group Pretest Posttest Posttest Maximum60 Minimum10 Ambivalent inclination Positive inclination 40+ Negative inclination 30-

23 9 Jun 0022 In the Chinese context... §Social harmony - foundation of Chinese culture §Underpinning communication and interpersonal relationships §Maintaining harmony is paramount §Preserving peaceful relations through communication processes: l Hanxu l Mianzi

24 9 Jun 0023 In the Chinese context... §Hanxu (implicit communication): l leaves the “unspoken” to the listeners §Mianzi (face-directed communication strategies): l intentions or disagreements deliberately articulated indirectly §Buanzuei (talk back) l challenging or questioning others l upsets the established hierarchical relationships and social harmony

25 9 Jun 0024 The case of the intellectually biased students??? §Chinese students not inclined to seek the truth? §Chinese students value harmony in interpersonal relationships more than the pursuit of truth?

26 9 Jun 0025 Summary §Measuring students’ CT: l (1) Is the conception of CT defensible? l (2) What procedures should be used to test the impact of a specific intervention on students’ CT? l (3) Are the CT measuring tools valid and reliable? l (4) How to ensure that the interpretation is culturally sensitive?


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