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Counseling Special Populations Counseling The Older Adult As society ages, more counselors will be needed to work with those 65 years or older. It is estimated that by the year 2020, this population will encompass 50 million of the American population. Older adults will vary according to: age, sex, marital status, geographic distribution, race and ethnicity, retirement, employment and income status as well as physical and mental health. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Problems and Concerns of the Older Adult Loss of work role identity. Increased amount of leisure time. Decreased financial support. Loss of significant other(s). Increased loneliness and separation. Geographic relocation. Peer and family restructuring. Increased physiologic disorders. Increased amount of dependence. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Counseling Principles for the Older Adult Enhancement of dignity and worth. Counselors need to “sell” the positive benefits of counseling. Counselors need to attend to the physical environment. The counselor is often an advocate of the client. Goals should be short-term and clear-cut. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Counseling Principles for the Older Adult (continued) Counselors need to attend to dependence/independence issues. Counselors need to attend to the age differential. Counselors need to attend to the client's place in history. Counselors need to diagnosis carefully with this population. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Goals For Counseling for the Older Adult To decrease anxiety and depression. To reduce confusion and loss of contact with reality. To increase socialization and improve interpersonal relationships. To improve behavior within institutions. To cope with crisis and transitional stress. To become more accepting of self and the aging process. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” “
Counseling Special Populations Counseling Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Clients There are at least 20 – 25 million gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals in the United States, or 10% - 15% of the adult population. There is no typical gay, lesbian or bisexual person. Individuals come from different races, ethnicities, religious backgrounds, socioeconomic statuses, and cultures. There are seven variables of sexual orientation: sexual attraction, sexual behavior, sexual fantasies, emotional preference, social preference, lifestyle, and self-identification. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Problems Faced by Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Clients Cultural Homophobia Cultural Heterosexism Internalized Homophobia Homophobia and Heterosexism in Counselors “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Identity Development of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Clients Identity confusion Identity conflict Identity denial Community identity Coming out or not “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Special Situations in Counseling for Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Clients Violence in Lesbian and Gay Male Couples Gay and Lesbian Families Religious Issues Drug and Alcohol Abuse AIDS “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Special Situations in Counseling for Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Clients (continued) Loneliness Guilt Depression Suicide “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Counseling Ethnic Minority Clients Ethnic minority clients are members of cultural groups who have been marginalized by society. There is no typical member of any one group. There is diversity within groups also. Worldview, culture, and acculturation are important considerations. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Models of Racial and Ethnic Identity Development Cross’s Model of Nigresence. Minority Identity Development Model Helm’s White Identity Development Model Common stages within each: pre-exposure, dissonance, immersion, internalization and cultural awareness, and acceptance. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Counselor Training for Counseling Ethnic Minorities Multicultural competencies are now expected. Facilitation of growth and awareness of cultural differences. Facilitation of growth and awareness of counselor bias. Adoption of a culture-centered counseling theory. Supervision and evaluation. Emphasis on the crossed dyads of racial identity development between counselor and client. Ethics “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Multicultural Counseling Practices Assessment Perspectives: Are assessment tools culturally sensitive and appropriate? Culturally-Specific Inventories: It is important to assess clients from their own frame of reference. Clinical Research Issues: Most theories and assessment instruments were developed with white, middle class subjects as models. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Future Directions of Multicultural Counseling Within Group Application: Understanding the differences within ethnic groups (e.g. The Hispanic group is composed of Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans etc.) Culture-Centered Interventions: Traditional methods of healing within the client’s community needs to be considered. Other Nontraditional Populations: Diversity does not just encompass race and ethnicity but can include the poor, the aged, religion etc. Ethical Issues: Is cultural ineffectiveness unethical? Should it or shouldn’t it be? “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Counseling Clients with Disabilities Themes in counseling could include: Independence vs. dependence; personal loss, coping with crisis, and/or maintaining employment. Three phases of humans services are: prevention, intervention and postvention. Prevention: The focus is on education or awareness of the likelihood of an activity or situation causing physical, or psychological problems. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Counseling Clients with Disabilities (continued) Intervention: Detection of signs of disease or critical situations followed by an intervention or strategy to reduce the level of harm. Postvention: Helping the client cope with new limitations and help restore optimal functioning. The ultimate rehabilitation goal is to improve a client’s quality of life and enhance physical and psychosocial adjustment. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Common Problems for Clients with Disabilities Lack of motivation. Secondary gain. Reluctance to participate in rehabilitation. Depression and anxiety. Poor body image. Problems with self-concept. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Common Problems for Clients with Disabilities (continued) Loss of control. Loss of reward and pleasure. Loss of independence (physical and economic). Difficulty in adjusting to the disability. Inability to access the environment. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Common Problems for Clients with Disabilities (continued) Impaired social or vocational roles. Changing family dynamics or relationships. Disruption of social life. Negative attitudes toward own disability. Social rejection and social isolation. Decreased sexual activity. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Adaptive Tasks to Help Clients Cope With Disabilities Help clients deal with pain and incapacitation. Help clients deal with stress. Help clients manage negative feelings. Help clients regain a positive self-image. Help clients gain a sense of competence. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Counseling Special Populations Adaptive Tasks to Help Clients Cope With Disabilities (continued) Help clients change their lifestyle. Help clients gain independence. Help clients mange their relationships. Prepare the client for an uncertain future if additional losses are likely. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
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