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Chapter 8 The Eurocurrency Market and International Banking.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Eurocurrency Market and International Banking."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 The Eurocurrency Market and International Banking

2 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 2 Objectives To define the Eurocurrency market. To identify Eurocurrencies and Eurocurrency banking centres. To identify reasons for the growth of the Eurocurrency market.

3 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 3 Objectives (cont.) To identify the main features of Eurobanking. To illustrate the determination of the bid- offer spread and the risk premium in Eurocurrency deposit rates. To describe international banking.

4 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 4 The Eurocurrency Market The market is comprised of banks that accept short-term deposits and make short- term loans in currencies other than that of the country in which they are located.

5 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 5 Eurocurrencies US dollar Euro Japanese yen British pound Swiss franc

6 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 6 Prerequisites for Eurocurrency Centres Political stability Favourable environment for international finance Good telecommunications system Favourable time zone High quality of life

7 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 7 Eurocurrency Centres European centres: London, Luxembourg, Paris, Zurich and Frankfurt Centres outside developed countries: the Bahamas, Bahrain and Hong Kong North America and Japan: International Banking Facilities (IBFs) and the Japan Offshore Market (JOM)

8 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 8 Evolution and Growth The market started in the 1950s. In 1957, the Bank of England introduced tight controls. In 1958, European currencies were made convertible.

9 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 9 Evolution and Growth (cont.) The rise of oil prices in the 1970s Efficiency

10 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 10 What Explains Efficiency? Eurobanks are not subject to regulations (e.g. Regulation Q, interest equalisation tax) No reserve requirements Economies of scale

11 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 11 Features of Eurobanking International banking encompasses Eurobanking. Liabilities are time or call deposits. Eurobanks cannot create deposits by writing claims against themselves.

12 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 12 Features of Eurobanking (cont.) Eurobanks accept deposits and make loans in a variety of currencies. A Eurobank is often a branch of an international bank. There are no formal restrictions on entry.

13 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 13 Features of Eurobanking (cont.) Transactions are large. The geographical spread is very wide. The market is not subject to the regulatory measures of the local authorities.

14 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 14 Features of Eurobanking (cont.) The market is dominated by interbank operations. Participants include multinationals and central banks. Eurobanks do not have to hold reserves against deposits.

15 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 15 Determination of the Bid-Offer Spread The bid rate is determined by the demand by market makers and the supply of price takers. The offer rate is determined by the demand by price takers and the supply of market makers.

16 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 16 Interest Rate Determination Q Q i

17 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 17 The Risk Premium Only borrowers of high quality can borrow at the offer rate quoted by market makers. Others have to pay a risk premium.

18 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 18 Risk Premium Associated with Low- Quality Borrowers Q i

19 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 19 International Banking International banking operations encompass those conducted with non- residents as well as those involving foreign currencies.

20 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 20 Reasons for the Emergence of International Banking Meeting the needs of foreign subsidiaries Participation in the FX market Circumventing capital controls Provision of custodial services

21 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 21 Traditional Activities Export-import finance Buying and selling foreign exchange Provision of foreign loans

22 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 22 New Activities Dealing in Eurocurrencies Syndicated Eurocredit Investment banking

23 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 23 Innovative Activities Innovative financing Global money market Managing the loan portfolios of developing countries Private banking

24 Copyright  2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a International Finance: An Analytical Approach 2e by Imad A. Moosa Slides prepared by Afaf Moosa 24 The Organisational Set-up Correspondent banks Representative offices Bank agencies Foreign branches, subsidiaries and affiliates Consortium banks Global banks


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