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International Business 9e By Charles W.L. Hill McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "International Business 9e By Charles W.L. Hill McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Business 9e By Charles W.L. Hill McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter 12 The Global Capital Market

3 12-3 Why Do We Have Capital Markets?  Capital markets bring together investors and borrowers  investors - corporations with surplus cash, individuals, and non-bank financial institutions  borrowers - individuals, companies, and governments  markets makers - the financial service companies that connect investors and borrowers, either directly (investment banks) or indirectly (commercial banks)  capital market loans can be equity or debt

4 12-4 Who Are The Main Players in Capital Markets? The Main Players in a Generic Capital Market

5 12-5 What Makes The Global Capital Market Attractive?  Today’s capital markets are highly interconnected and facilitate the free flow of money around the world  Borrowers benefit from the additional supply of funds global capital markets provide  lowers the cost of capital  Investors benefit from the wider range of investment opportunities  diversify portfolios and lower risk

6 12-6 How Have Global Capital Markets Changed Since 1990?  Global capital markets have grown rapidly  the stock of cross-border bank loans was just $3,600 billion in 1990, but $32,430 in 2010  the international bond market has grown from $3,515 billion in 1997 to $26,613 in 2010  international equity offerings were just $18 billion in 1990, but grew to $750 billion in 2009  The growth in the markets is a result of 1.Advances in information technology 2.Deregulation by governments

7 12-7 What Are The Risks Of The Global Capital Markets?  Question: Could deregulation of capital markets and fewer controls on cross-border capital flows make nations more vulnerable to the effects of speculative capital flows?  can have a destabilizing effect on economies  2008-2009 global financial crisis  Speculative capital flows may be the result of inaccurate information about investment opportunities  if global capital markets continue to grow, better quality information is likely to be available from financial intermediaries

8 12-8 What Is A Eurocurrency?  A eurocurrency is any currency banked outside its country of origin  about two-thirds of all eurocurrencies are Eurodollars  It is an important source of low-cost funds for international companies  The market began in the 1950s  Eastern bloc countries feared that the U.S. might seize their dollars so, they deposited them in Europe  additional dollar deposits came from Western European central banks and companies that exported to the U.S.

9 12-9 Why Has The Eurocurrency Market Grown?  In 1957, the market surged again after changes in British laws  London became the leading center of the market and still hold this position  In the 1960s, the market grew once again  Changes in regulations discouraged U.S. banks from lending to non-U.S. residents  would-be borrowers of dollars outside the U.S. turned to the euromarket as a source of dollars

10 12-10 Why Has The Eurocurrency Market Grown?  The next big increase came after the 1973-74 and 1979-80 oil price increases  Arab members of OPEC accumulated huge amounts of dollars  avoided potential confiscation of their dollars by the U.S. by depositing them in banks in London

11 12-11 What Makes The Eurocurrency Market Attractive?  The eurocurrency market is attractive because it is not regulated by the government  banks can offer higher interest rates on eurocurrency deposits and charge lower interest rates to eurocurrency borrowers  The spread between the eurocurrency deposit and lending rates is less than the spread between the domestic deposit and lending rates  gives eurocurrency banks a competitive edge over domestic banks

12 12-12 What Makes The Eurocurrency Market Attractive? Interest Rate Spreads in Domestic and Eurocurrency Markets

13 12-13 What Makes The Eurocurrency Market Unattractive?  The eurocurrency market has two significant drawbacks: 1.Because the eurocurrency market is unregulated, there is a higher risk that bank failure could cause depositors to lose funds  can avoid this risk by accepting a lower return on a home-country deposit 2.Companies borrowing eurocurrencies can be exposed to foreign exchange risk  can minimize this risk through forward market hedges

14 12-14 What Is The Global Bond Market?  Bonds are an important means of financing for many companies  the most common bond is a fixed rate which gives investors fixed cash payoffs  The global bond market grew rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s and continues to grow today  There are two types of international bonds 1.Foreign bonds 2.Eurobonds

15 12-15 What Makes The Eurobond Market Attractive?  The eurobond market is attractive because 1.It lacks regulatory interference  since companies do not have to adhere to strict regulations, the cost of issuing bonds is lower 2.It has less stringent disclosure requirements than domestic bond markets  it can be cheaper and less time consuming to offer eurobonds than dollar-denominated bonds 3.It is more favorable from a tax perspective  eurobonds can be sold directly to foreign investors

16 12-16 What Is The Global Equity Market?  The global equity market allows firms to 1.Attract capital from international investors  many investors buy foreign equities to diversify their portfolios 2.List their stock on multiple exchanges  this type of trend may result in an internationalization of corporate ownership 3.Raise funds by issuing debt or equity around the world

17 12-17 What Do Global Capital Markets Mean For Managers?  The growth in global capital markets has created opportunities for firms to borrow or invest internationally  can often borrow at a lower cost, but must balance the foreign exchange risk against the costs savings  Growth in capital markets offers opportunities for firms, institutions, and individuals to diversify their investments and reduce risk  Capital markets are likely to continue to integrate providing more opportunities for business

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