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1/1 Topics in Artificial Intelligence prof. dr hab. in ż. Joanna Józefowska,

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Presentation on theme: "1/1 Topics in Artificial Intelligence prof. dr hab. in ż. Joanna Józefowska,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 1/1 Topics in Artificial Intelligence prof. dr hab. in ż. Joanna Józefowska, http://www.cs.put.poznan.pl/jjozefowska

3 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 2 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Curriculum Introduction – overview of research topics in artificial intelligence Knowledge representation Space search as a general inference model Reasoning under uncertainty

4 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 3 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP References Bolc L., Borodziewicz W., Wójcik M., Podstawy przetwarzania informacji niepewnej i niepełnej, PWN, Warszawa, 1991. Bolc L., Zaremba J., Wprowadzenie do uczenia się maszyn, Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza RM, Warszawa, 1992. Bolc L., J. Cytowski, Metody przeszukiwania heurystycznego, PWN, t1 1989, t2 1991. Charniak E., Mc Dermot D., Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, Addison Wesley, 1985. Churchland P.M., P. Smith-Churchland, Czy maszyna może myśleć?, Świat Nauki, lipiec 1991. Greenfield S., Tajemnice mózgu, Świat Książki, Warszawa, 1998. Guida G., C. Tasso, Design and Development of Knowledge-Based Systems, John Wiley 1994. Harel D., Rzecz o istocie informatyki, wyd. 2, WNT Warszawa, 2000. Lugger G., Stubblefield W.A., Artificial Intelligence and the Design of Expert Systems, The Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Comp. Inc., 1989. Mulawka J., Systemy ekspertowe, Warszawa, WNT, 1996 Neural Networks and Soft Computing, L. Rutkowski, R. Tadeusiewicz (eds.), Polish Neural Network Society, Częstochowa, 2000. Niederliński A., Regułowe systemy ekspertowe, Wydawnictwo Pracowni Komputerowej Jacka Skalmierskiego, Gliwice 2000. Puppe F., Systematic Introduction to Expert Systems, Springer Verlag 1993. Rich E., Artificial Intelligence, McGraw Hill, 1983. Rich E., K. Knight, Artificial intelligence, McGraw Hill, New York, 1991. Russell S. J., Norvig P., Artificial Intelligence. A modern approach, Prentice Hall, Inc. 1995. Scarle J.R., Czy intelekt mózgu jest programem komputerowym?, Świat Nauki, lipiec 1991. Sieci Neuronowe, W. Duch, J. Korbicz, L.Rutkowski, R. Tadeusiewicz, Biocybernetyka i Inżynieria Medyczna 2000, t. 6, Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza EXIT, Warszawa 2000. Tadeusiewicz R., Elementarne wprowadzenie do techniki sieci neuronowych z przykładowymi programami, Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza PLJ, Warszawa 1998.

5 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 4 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Artificial Intelligence myths and reality

6 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 5 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP What is human intelligence? Is it a single feature or a set of skills? Can one learn it? What is learning? What is creativity? What is intuition? What is consciousness? Can we build an intelligent machine? How to check if a machine is intelligent?

7 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 6 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Intelligence has been defined by prominent researchers in the field as : Binet and Simon (1905): the ability to judge well, to understand well, to reason well. Terman (1916): the capacity to form concepts and to grasp their significance. Wechsler (1939): the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment. Gardner (1986): the ability or skill to solve problems or to fashion products which are valued within one or more cultural settings.

8 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 7 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Linguistic intelligence reading writing speaking understanding creativity Shall I compare thee to a summers day? Thou art. More lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darlings buds of May, And summers lease hath all too short a date; W. Shakespeare

9 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 8 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Personal intelligence Ma dwie odmiany: interpersonal – people smart intrapersonal –self smart

10 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 9 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Logical-mathematical intelligence number/reasoning smart abstract, symbolic thought sequential reasoning skills inductive and deductive thinking patterns E=mc 2

11 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 10 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Kinesthetic intelligence – Body smart manipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills

12 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 11 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Musical intelligence recognize create reproduce reflect on music Słuchamy fragmentu IX symfonii Ludwiga van Beethovena Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone.

13 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 12 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Spatial intelligence mental imagery spatial reasoning image manipulation graphic and artistic skills an active imagination Spatial intelligence is the ability to think in three dimensions.

14 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 13 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP The IQ Test and 7 types of intelligence by Gardner linguistic intelligence personal intelligence interpersonal intrapersonal logical-mathematical intelligence kinesthetic intelligence musical intelligence spatial intelligence Psychologist Howard Gardner Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Basic Books Paperback, 1985. Tenth Anniversary Edition with new introduction, New York: Basic Books, 1993. IQ = (Mental Age) / (Chronological Age) x 100

15 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 14 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP General intelligence Intelligence is not a collection of various aptitudes but the integration of various aptitudes into a coherent whole. Humans are smarter than computers because they can switch from Chess to Painting and see the connections between those fields, something that computers are completely unable to do. Intelligence is at least as much into the links between our various aptitudes that into the various aptitudes themselves and it is a serious mistake to reduce intelligence to the aptitudes that support it. Charles Spearman G-factor

16 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 15 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP General intelligence memory creativity imagination common sense intuition emotions morality Intelligence and

17 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 16 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Famous meeting The Dartmouth Seminar 1956 Dartmouth College: John McCarthy Marvin Minsky Claude Shannon Nathaniel Rochester Princeton: Trenchard More IBM: Arthur Samuel MIT: Ray Solomonoff Oliver Selfridge Carnegie Tech: Allen Newell Herbert Simon "Within ten years a digital computer will be the world's chess champion," Allen Newell said in 1957, "unless the rules bar it from competition."

18 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 17 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Artificial intelligence Thinking humanlyThinking rationally Acting humanlyActing rationally Source: Russel S.J., Norvig P., Artificial intelligence - a modern approach, Prentice Hall 1995.

19 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 18 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP The Turing test ?

20 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 19 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Criticism of the Turing test The Test provides a guarantee not of intelligence but of culturally-oriented human intelligence (see French, Robert M.: Subcognition and the Limits of the Turing Test). The test is limited to solving symbolic tasks, it is not possible to verify perception or manual abilities, although they reflect human intelligence.

21 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 20 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Defense of the Turing test The only standard allowing to discover intelligence without defining its true nature. It ignores the problem of internal computer inference mechanism and its consciousness. The natural advantages of living object is reduced by the interface.

22 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 21 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Mental faculties flavour, test, intuition

23 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 22 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Application domains of artificial intelligence Natural language processing Image recognition Automated reasoning Games Expert systems Automatic learning Action planning and robotics

24 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 23 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Cognitivism or connectionism? Weak or strong artificial intelligence?

25 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 24 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP How does a human brain work? How do humans solve problems? Conectionist modelCognitivist model Big number of identical simple units Distributed and parallel processing Failure resistance Complexity of learning Symbolic knowledge representation Inference mechanism Complexity of search

26 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 25 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Physical symbol system hypothesis 1976 - Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon *) A physical symbol system consists of a set of entities, called symbols, which are physical patterns that can occur as components of another type of entity called an expression (or symbol structure). Hypothesis: A physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for general intelligent action. *)Carnegie Tech - now Carnegie Mellon University

27 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 26 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Knowledge representation Search General technique for problem solving consisting in systematic exploration of all consecutive and alternative steps in the problem solving process. The process and the result of formalization of knowledge in such a way, that it can be used automatically for problem solving.

28 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 27 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Automated reasoning Bernard Russel 1872-1970 Alfred N. Whitehead 1861-1947

29 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 28 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 1931 –incompleteness theorem Let NT be a set of axioms of the number theory. If theory T (NT) is sound then it is incomplete *). Kurt Gödel 29.04.1906 -14.06.1978 *) Proof in: [1] Smullyan R., What is the name of this book? – The riddle of Draculla and other logical puzzles. Prentice-Hall, 1978. [2] Mendelson E., Introduction to mathematical logic, Wyd. 4, Chapman and Hall, 1997.

30 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 29 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Logic Theorist - 1956 Allen Newell 19.03.1927 - 19.07.1992 Herbert Simon 15.06.1916 - 9.02.2001

31 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 30 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP First Order Logic (FOL) A = Z F P S {(, ),,} A – set of symbols Z - variables x 1, x 2,... F – function symbols: F 1 n, F 2 n,... P – predicate symbols: P 1 n, P 2 n,... S – logical symbols {,,,,,, }

32 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 31 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Deduction Inference method based on modus ponens

33 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 32 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 2. modus ponens Dowód: Theorem:die(sokrates) 1. X/sokrates in A1 man(sokrates), man(sokrates) die(sokrates) Theory (A1) man(X) die(X) (A2) man(sokrates) (A1) man(sokrates) die(sokrates) die(sokrates)

34 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 33 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Operations in Logic Theorist Substitution: any variable may be substituted by an expresion. Modus ponens (reguła odrywania): Replacement: an operator can be replaced by a definition. e.g. in ( A B) (A B) we substitute A for B ( A A) (A A) (*) np. w wyrażeniu ( A A) A zastępujemy operator jego definicją (*) (A A) A [(A B) A] B

35 Topics in Artificial Intelligence 34 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Logic Theorist - summary Newella, Simona and Shawa 1956 Proved theorems from the first chapter of Principia Mathematica Knowledge representation: FOL Inference: deduction Comparison of expressions: unification Problems: complexity


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