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Quick Review Causes of the Great War 1914 - 1918.

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Presentation on theme: "Quick Review Causes of the Great War 1914 - 1918."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quick Review Causes of the Great War

2 Long Term (Three –isms) Nationalism Nationalism Imperialism Imperialism Militarism Militarism And alliances And alliances

3 Short Term Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne

4 The Great War Begins Schlieffen Plan Western Front: Trench Warfare

5 Schlieffen Plan Developed in 1905 by Count Alfred von Schlieffen ? Germany believed that war with Russia was likely Possibility France would attack as well because it was an ally of Russia, and had been defeated by Germany in the Franco- Prussian War Germany’s Main Concern: AVOID A TWO- FRONT WAR

6 Schlieffen Plan (cont’d) The Plan Defeat France quickly and rapidly, then turn to eastern front against the Russians Why France First? Knowledge of French defenses Russia has few railroads, therefore slow to mobilize Attack via Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg 90% of German forces to knock out France, Remaining 10% to defend eastern border Let France violate Belgian neutrality first

7 Schlieffen Plan (cont’d) Slight Alteration Attack to be concentrated through Belgium, avoiding Holland Overwhelm Belgian army then rapidly proceed to Paris

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10 Schlieffen Plan (cont’d) Important German Assumptions Take Russia at least 6 weeks to mobilize Easily defeat France in 6 weeks time period Belgian army would provide little resistance Britain would remain neutral In Reality Germany held up by Belgian Army and BEF Russia needed only 10 days to mobilize Germany doesn’t take opportunity to capture Paris → instead Battle of the Marne

11 Origins of Trench Warfare Allies realize they are unable to save Belgium and retreat to the Marne River Battle ensues with both sides trying to outflank one another, both sides unsuccessful Decide to dig in for a long siege War of attrition

12 Trench Warfare By spring 1915 Two parallel systems of trenches stretching from Belgian coast across France to the Swiss Alps Approx. 500 miles of trenches

13 Trench Warfare (cont’d) Types of Trenches Front line Support Reserve Other amenities Dugouts – underground rooms for officers quarters and command posts

14 Trench Warfare (cont’d) “No Man’s Land” Barren expanse of land between the opposing armies covered with shell craters and barbed wire Usually 25 yards to one mile wide Periodic charges mounted

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