Presentation on theme: "World War One War and Peace. Warfare Technology –Industrialization and new technology made World War One highly destructive. Machine Gun Tank Submarine."— Presentation transcript:
World War One War and Peace
Warfare Technology –Industrialization and new technology made World War One highly destructive. Machine Gun Tank Submarine Poison gas –All of these new weapons and technology lead to large numbers of casualties, death and destruction.
Trench Warfare When French and British troops stopped the advance of the German Army in France both sides dug in trenches. Neither side was able to advance over the next four years. Life in the trenches was horrid –Rats –Mud –Lack of sleep –Death
Trench Warfare If militarism glorified war, trench warfare did everything it could to demystify the idea of a glorious war.
Trench Warfare Rats infested trenches. The brown rat was especially feared. They ate human remains and they could grow to the size of a cat. A single rat couple could produce up to 900 offspring in a year spreading infection and contaminating food.
Trench Warfare Lice were a never-ending problem, breeding in the seams of filthy clothing and causing men to itch. Even when clothing was washed lice eggs invariably remained hidden in the seams.
Trench Warfare Trench Fever a particularly painful disease that began suddenly with severe pain followed by high fever was caused by lice. Recovery away from the trenches took up to twelve weeks.
Trench Warfare Trench Foot was a medical condition common to trench life. It was an infection of the feet caused by cold, wet and unsanitary trench conditions. It could turn gangrenous and result in amputation.
Trench Warfare The Smell Rotting carcasses lay around in the thousands. For example, approximately 200,000 men were killed on the Somme battlefields, many of which lay in shallow graves. Overflowing latrines would also give off a most offensive smell. Men who had not been afforded the luxury of a bath in weeks or months would smell like the odor of dried sweat. The feet were generally accepted to give off the worst odor.
Trench Warfare The land between the trenches was known as “No Man’s Land”. The venture into this area alone meant certain death.
Warfare Battle of Verdun (Western Front) –In February 1916 the German Army launched an attack on Verdun. –The attack was meant to decimate the French Army. –In 11 months of fighting the German Army advanced only four miles –The Germans lost 328,500 men –The French lost 348,300 men.
Warfare Battle of the Somme (Western Front) –In July 1916 the British tried to help the French at Verdun by attacking the Germans in the Somme River valley –In the first day of battle the British lost 19,000 men. –By November the British gained eight miles. –The allies lost 615,000 men –The Germans lost 500,000 men.
Russia’s Withdraw Prior to the beginning of the war Russia had not become industrialized. The Russian Army was ill-equipped for the war and was short of weapons, food and fuel. In 1915 the Russians suffered the loss of 2 million men. By 1917 there was social unrest in Russia and the government was close to collapse. By 1917 the Russian Army refused to fight. In November 1917 Lenin and the Communist take control of the government.
Russia’s Withdraw Treaty of Brest-Litovsk –Lenin wanted to end the war and offered a truce. –The treaty was harsh towards Russia –Russia had to give up Finland Poland Ukraine The Baltic States
Russia’s Withdraw Outcome –The German Army was able to place more troops on the Western front which angered the British and French. –The Germans tried to push towards Paris.
America joins the War Up until 1917 The U.S. had remained neutral. In 1917 the German Navy began a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare and attacked any ships trying to reach Britain. President Wilson told the Germans that if more U.S. ships were sunk the U.S. would enter the war. The Germans ignored the warning and continued to sink U.S. ships.
America joins the War The Zimmerman Telegram –In February 1917 the Germans sent a telegram to Mexico –The telegram stated that if the U.S. entered the war then Germany would become an ally to Mexico and help Mexico gain land lost to the U.S. –The telegram was intercepted and made public. –The U.S.was outraged and on April 2, 1917 entered World War One.
End of War With fresh U.S. troops and the exhaustion of four year of fighting by the German Army the Central Powers began to fall apart. The Ottoman Empire surrendered. In October the Austria-Hungarian Empire was overthrown and they stopped fighting. In October the German Army mutinied and on November 9, the Kaiser stepped down. Finally on November 11, 1918 an armistice was signed ending World War One. –On the 11 th day on the 11th hour at the 11th minute.
Cost of the War Casualties –8.5 million dead –17 million wounded –Famine threatened many countries –Spread of disease Economic –Factories and farms destroyed –Nations had huge war debts to repay –The allies were bitter at the Central Powers for the war. (hard feelings on both sides)
Winners and Losers Winners (Allies) –Britain –France –Italy –United States Losers (Central Powers) –Germany –Austria-Hungary –Ottoman Empire
Homework Complete note summary Finish postcard home. Study for Quiz # 3. Read pages , & –Answer the following questions 1.Why was the Versailles Treaty so harsh towards the Germans? 2.What was the hope for Wilson’s 14 Point peace plan? 3.Why does the book say that the Treaty of Versailles was a peace built on quicksand?
Class Work You have been fighting in the trenches for three months. –It is mid November and has rained almost every day. The leather on your boots has rotted to your feet and your food is wet. The only hope you have is that it is November and the ground and mud will soon freeze, but so will you. –The Germans have been shelling your trench for the past twelve nights and you have not gotten any sleep. –Men who have charged into “No Man’s Land” and have become wounded and are unable to make it back moan in pain for help. To go out and get them would be suicide so you just listen to them. All day and all night. –Yesterday you tried to look over the trench and a German sniper almost shot you. –A whistle blows! The Captain says you have one hour before you try to take the German trench!
Class Work Create a postcard to a loved one at home. –On the front of the postcard draw a picture of the front, what life was like. Use color. –On the back explain, in writing, what life and death was like in the trenches and during the war. Be descriptive to let the people at home know what you are facing in this Great War. –Use a blank 8 ½ by 11 piece of paper. –Make sure your name is on the postcard.
Note Summary Take five minutes, look over your notes and the on a separate sheet of paper label it “World War One War and Peace” and summarize your notes. –What new technology aided in the large lost of life during the war? –What were the conditions of trench warfare? –What was the outcome of most battles fought? –Why did Russia withdraw from the war and what was the impact on Russia and the rest of Europe? –How and why did America enter the war? –What were some of the final outcomes of the war?