12Prior to Excavation Obtain a work permit Check Ground / Soil condition Check Ground / Surface WaterCheck the Location of Water TableCheck Under ground / Overhead utilitiesAdjacent buildingsDynamic load / Traffic
13Soil Classification Type A : Clay, sandy clay, clay loam Type B : Angular gravel (similar to crushed rock), silt, silt loam, sandy loamType C:Gravel, sand, loamy sand,Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping; or Submerged rock that is not stable
14Preventing Soil Collapse Soil classification (Type a, b, or C)SlopingBenchingPlacing a shield.Shoring(Timber / Aluminum shoringSheet piling
15Your choice of protection SlopingBenchingShoringShieldsDesigned by a Registered Project Engineer
16Simple Sloping Stable Rock : 900 Type A - 3/4:1 530 Short term up to 12’ -630Note :Greater than 20 feet deepshall be designed by a registeredprofessional engineer.
17Simple Sloping -Type A Soil Unsupported Vertically-Sided Lower Portion <12 ftUnsupported Vertically-Sided Lower Portion <8 ft
18Simple Sloping -Type A Soil Supported or Shielded Vertically-Sided Lower Portion
19Simple Sloping Type B - 1:1 450 Type C - 1½ :1 340 Note :Greater than 20 feet deep shallbe designed by a registeredprofessional engineer.
28UTILITIES Obtain work permit and get clearances from the concerned PREVENTIONObtain work permit and get clearances from the concernedElectricityWater & Sewage PipelineCommunicationOil & Gas Pipe LineUse Detectors ( for More Reliable)
30Hazardous Atmospheres Never Start Work if,Oxygen Level less than 19.5 %Permissible limit of the toxic gases exceeded.More than 20 % of Lower Explosive Limit.PRECAUTIONSVentilation to over come the above said.Blocking the source, incase of toxic and flammable gases.(Using other effective controls to reduce the level of atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels)
31Adjacent Structures Ensure structure stability Shoring Bracing Evaluation by Professional
32FALLING LOAD Gravity Weight of soil pile Weight of near by structures Weight of personnel &equipmentVibrationPREVENTIONNever operate a construction equipment within 2.5 m from the edge of the excavation.Stacking the material 1 Meter away from the edge of the excavation.
33Access Ladders – Ramps with slope not more than 15o @ every 9.14 m Length – Normal Operations@ every 4.6 m length – Hazardous operationRamps with slope not more than 15oStairs cut on earth
34Vehicle Traffic Control Measures Traffic Management Plan Traffic Safety VestsFencingIllumination
36Fencing Physical barricades required always Hard Barrication shall be provided, in the fall prone areas and if depth is morePhysical barricades required alwaysMust be placed 2m away from excavation edge.Standard fall protection required for vertical falls over 1.3mTraffic diversionsPedestrian walkway diversions
38ILLUMINATION Temporary Lightings: Sufficient Area Lighting. Emergency Lighting with Power back up.
39Excavation Inspections Daily Inspections by Competent PersonStart of shift, as needed, following rainstorms or other hazard-increasing eventPossible cave-insProtective system failureWater accumulationHazardous atmospheres
41Safety awareness – Supervision Develope - personnel interested on Safety,Safe work procedures considering the ground realities.Awareness and motivating the supervisors concerned,Develop system to report, analyze and prevent Near-miss cases.Developing gang leaders and attitude,