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The Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia Andrew Berger, PhD San Francisco and Dallas Mental Health Specialist.

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Presentation on theme: "The Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia Andrew Berger, PhD San Francisco and Dallas Mental Health Specialist."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia Andrew Berger, PhD San Francisco and Dallas Mental Health Specialist

2 How much do you know?

3 Video #1 & #2

4 If You Have Insomnia You Are Not Alone 75% of Adults Had One Symptom of Sleep Disorder 30-40 Percent of US Population Occasionally Suffers from Insomnia Partners Affected Americans Average 6.9 Hours of Sleep

5 Consequences of Poor Sleep Poor Health Higher Death Rates Physical Ailments

6 More Consequences of Poor Sleep Hormone and Metabolism Changes Sleep Debt Is Cumulative Sleep Deprivation and Driving Catastrophes Cost to Americans

7 Benefits of Sleep Alertness/Performance Memory/Concentration/Creativity Better Health

8 Many Types of Sleep Disorders Primary Insomnia Primary Hyperinsomnia Narcolepsy Breathing Related Disorders Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Nightmare Disorder

9 Many Types of Sleep Disorders Sleep Terror Disorder Sleep Walking Disorder Substance Induced Sleep Disorder Sleep Disorder Due To Medical Condition

10 DSM4-TR Insomnia Essential Features Onset and Intermittent Insomnia Non-Restorative Sleep Preoccupation and Distress Better Sleeping Away From Home Decreased Well-Being and Concentration

11 DSM4-TR Primary Insomnia The predominant symptom is difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or non-restorative sleep for at least one month The sleep disturbance (or associated daytime fatigue) causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning The sleep disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of narcolepsy, breathing-related sleep disorder, circadian rhythm sleep disorder, or para- somnia

12 DSM4-TR Continued The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of another mental disorder (e.g., major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, a delirium). The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., drug abuse, medication) or a general medical condition.

13 Primary Insomnia Occurs Independently Not Due To An Obvious Cause Rarely From Infancy Learned Predisposed Due To Overactive Nervous System

14 People With Insomnia Have: Higher Metabolic Rates Higher Levels of Stress Hormones Associate Bedroom with Anxiety Poor Coping

15 What Is Secondary Insomnia? Results From Another Cause Sleep Disorder Non-Sleep Condition Substances

16 Disorders That Can Disrupt Sleep Angina Diabetes Hyperthyroidism Parkinson’s Disease Epilepsy Alzheimer’s Headaches

17 More Disorders Affecting Sleep Strokes/Tumors Asthma Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Anxiety Depression

18 More Disorders Affecting Sleep Bipolar Disorder Schizophrenia Gastro esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Kidney Disease Arthritis

19 Medications That Can Disturb Sleep Alpha blockers Anti-arrhythmic Beta blockers Diuretics Antidepressants

20 More Medications Affecting Sleep Beta Agonists Corticosteroids Nicotine Patches Stimulants Theophylline Thyroid Replacement Drugs

21 Types of Sleepers Standard Sleepers Larks Owls

22 Adolescent and Young Adult Sleep Patterns Teens Young Adults

23 Dr Lawrence Epstein’s Six Step Plan To A Good Night’s Sleep Recognizing the importance of sleep Adopting a healthy lifestyle Maintaining good sleep habits Creating the optimal sleep environment Seeking help for persistent sleep problems

24 Recognize The Importance of Sleep

25 Adopt A Healthy Lifestyle Exercise Regularly Maintain A Healthy Diet Don’t Drink to Excess or Smoke

26 Maintain Good Sleep Habits Keep A Regular Sleep/Wake Cycle Develop A Pre-Sleep Routine Reserve Bedroom for Sleep and Intimacy Avoid Naps If You Can’t Sleep Get Out of Bed

27 Create An Optimal Sleep Environment Control Bedroom Noise Block Out Light Keep It Cool and Well Ventilated Hide The Clock Make Your Bed Comfortable

28 Sleep Saboteurs Limit Caffeine Use Alcohol Cautiously Stop Smoking or Chewing Tobacco Find Right Balance of Fluids Avoid Heartburn Food

29 Seek Help For Persistent Sleep Problems

30 Behavioral Treatments of Insomnia Reconditioning/Stimulus Control Sleep Restriction Relaxation Techniques

31 Reconditioning/Stimulus Control Go To Bed Only When Sleepy Use Bed Only For Sleep or Sex Get Up After 20 Minutes of No Sleep Repeat Step 3 As Needed Get Up At Same Time Every Morning No Naps

32 Sleep Restriction Less Time In Bed Promotes More Efficient Sleep Estimate Sleep and Subtract From Wake Up Time Continue Adding 15 to 30 Min Less Than 5 Hours Not Recommended—Consult MD

33 Relaxation Techniques Progressive Muscle Relaxation Deep Breathing Meditation Visualization Biofeedback

34 Cognitive Therapy Misattributions Hopelessness Unrealistic Expectations Exaggerating Consequences Performance Anxiety

35 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Often Provided with Behavioral Therapy—Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) CBT More Effective Than Any Behavioral Therapy Alone More Effective Than Sleeping Pills Largest Obstacle Lack of Patient Commitment

36 Sleeping Pills 10 Percent Adults Use Prescription or OTC Sleep Meds Short-Term Solution Causes Long Term Problem Do Not Help People Become Normal Sleepers Fail To Treat Causes of Insomnia

37 Herbal Supplements Valerian Lavender Chamomile Passionflower Melatonin

38 Bibliography (1)Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of Insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep Med Rev. 2002:;6:97-111 (2)National Sleep Foundation. Summary of Findings: 2005 Sleep in America Poll. March 2005. (3)Alattar M, Harrington JJ, Mitchell CM, et al. Sleep problems in primary care: a North Carolina Family Practice Research Network study. J Am Board Faro Med. 2007;20:365-374

39 Bibliography Continued (4) NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement on manifestations and management of chronic insomnia in adults. NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 2005; 22:1- 30 (5)American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4 th ed, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, De: American Psychiatric Association; 2000:597-663 (6)Sateia MJ, Pigeon WR. Identification and management of insomnia. Med Clin North Am. 2004;88:567-596

40 Bibliography Continued (7) American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, revised: Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Chicago, IL,: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2001 (8) Insomnia in the primary care practice. Journal of Family Practice, April, 2008 (9) Gregg D Jacobs, PhD Say Good Night To Insomnia, Henry Hold and Company, LLC 115 West 18 th Street, New York, New York 10011

41 Bibliography Continued (10) Lawrence J. Epstein, MD The Harvard Medical School Guide To A Good Night’s Sleep, McGraw Hill, 2007 (11) William C Dement, MD, PhD and Christopher Vaughan The Promise of Sleep, 1999, Dell Publishing, A division of Random House, Inc, 1540 Broadway, New York, New York 10036

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