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The Enlightenment Part A. 1.What was The Enlightenment? A philosophical movement in Europe, and later in North America, that began in the second half.

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment Part A. 1.What was The Enlightenment? A philosophical movement in Europe, and later in North America, that began in the second half."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment Part A

2 1.What was The Enlightenment? A philosophical movement in Europe, and later in North America, that began in the second half of the 1600s and lasted until the 1800s Enlightenment philosophy emphasized science, human reason, and individual conscience to discover truth Enlightenment philosophers, in many cases, challenged certain traditional Christian views

3 2. What were four signature features of the Enlightenment? Reason Natural Law Hope Progress

4 3. As an outgrowth of the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment sought to apply the Scientific Method to what? Human Society and its problems 4. At the end of the day, what did Enlightenment thinkers hope to accomplish? The creation of a better and more just society

5 5. In Isaac Newton’s scheme of things, the universe operated according to what? Natural Laws, like a finely-tuned machine 6. Many Enlightenment thinkers believed that, if the universe operated according to natural laws, then perhaps what else did? Human Society

6 7. According to the English philosopher, John Locke, the human mind was like what, at birth? Tabla Rasa, a blank slate 8. What did John Locke mean by that? The human mind is influenced by what it experiences during life, and life experiences fill out the blank slate that is there at birth

7 9. Thus, what did John Locke believe about the potential for the shaping of human minds? He believed that human beings, if exposed to good influences, would develop good qualities 10. Thus, what was John Locke’s view of human nature? He was optimistic about human nature, a view that was a move away from the traditional Christian view of human nature and original sin.

8 11. How did John Locke view the role of natural law in human society and government? Locke believed that individual human beings possessed the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. Government, in turn, was to protect the natural rights of life, liberty, and property of the citizenry

9 12. What did John Locke believe about a government that did not properly protect the natural rights of its citizenry? The people have the right of revolution in order to overthrow the government and replace it with one that protects the life, liberty, and property of its citizenry

10 13. On what group of people did John Locke’s ideas about government influence? The colonists in North America who revolted against Great Britain and started the American Revolution ( ). 14. What document in 1776 was heavily influenced by John Locke’s political ideas? The American Declaration of Independence, a document largely written by Thomas Jefferson

11 15. What modern American institution seems to reflect John Locke’s view of the human mind and human nature? American Public Schools 16. How so? Public schools seem to operate with the assumption that, if children learn a collection of good subjects, then the children will become good people and citizens. In a way, public schools are citizen factories


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