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Special Education Program at SUNY New Paltz

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1 Special Education Program at SUNY New Paltz
Guide to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Special Education Program at SUNY New Paltz

2 APA Tutorial This Powerpoint presentation is designed to provide you with the basics of APA format and other general writing guidelines. It is not to be considered a comprehensive source. For complete APA requirements, refer to the APA publication manual (6th Edition). You also may want to consult the resources provided at the end of this tutorial, such as the Purdue Online Writing Lab.

3 Finding Sources

4 Peer-reviewed Articles
“Peer-reviewed or refereed journals are publications that have their submitted articles evaluated by outside experts (peers) in the subject area (Bachand & Sawallis, 2003, p. 40).”

5 Locating Peer-reviewed Articles via Library Databases
1. Go to library databases on the New Paltz library website. 2. Search by subject and select education. 3. Select an education database such as Education Research Complete. 4. Perform a key word search: Use key words or phrases that relate to your topic. Make sure to go to check the box marked “Scholarly (Peer-reviewed) Journals” on the search page

6 Now You Try Go to library databases.
Search by subject and select education. Click on Education Research Complete. Enter “positive behavioral support” and “elementary school” in two separate boxes for the key word search. Check the box marked “Scholarly (Peer- reviewed) Journals” on the search page. Click search.

7 Sample Databases Education Education Research Complete ERIC (EBSCO)
Multi-subject Academic Search Complete Sage Premier JSTOR

8 Locating Peer-reviewed Articles via Journals
If you already know the name of a journal Go to library journals on the library homepage. Type the name of the journal in the search. Then, you can search for an article by title or by a key word search.

9 Now You Try Go to library journals on the library homepage.
Search for the journal title “Exceptional Children” in the search bar. Now you can search for an article title. “Using Principles of Behavior Modification to Teach Behavior Modification” or Use the listed databases that contain the journal and do a key word search. “Behavior modification” Example Example

10 Locating Peer-reviewed Articles via Journals
If you do not know the name of a journal Go to library homepage. Browse journals by subject. Select “Social sciences” then Education-general or Education- special topics Then search within the journal of your choice.

11 Sample Scholarly Journals
Evaluation & Research in Education Teacher Education & Special Education Exceptional Children Journal of Educational Research Journal of Special Education Journal of Learning Disabilities Learning Disability Quarterly Journal of Research and Practice in Special Education Teaching Exceptional Children Intervention in School and Clinic Disability Studies Quarterly

12 Database Generated Citations
Caution: Database generated APA citations are NOT correct You must consult APA guidelines See example on next slide

13 Database Generated Citations Example
Gresham, F. M. (1984). Social Skills and Self-Efficacy for Exceptional Children. Exceptional Children, 51(3), Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Correct citation: Gresham, F. M. (1984). Social skills and self-efficacy for exceptional children. Exceptional Children, 51(3), doi: Note: APA 6th edition does not require listing the database source (APA, 2010, p. 192) Must list DOI if available (see slide no. 33) Lowercase Cite DOI when available Italic

14 Learning the Basics of APA Style

15 Basics Double space entire paper including headings
Two spaces after end punctuation in sentences (recommended) Use 10 pt to 12 pt Times New Roman or similar font 1 inch margins all around Indent paragraphs ½ inch Number pages consecutively beginning with the title page (Angeli et al., 2010)

16 Voice and Point of View Use an active voice not a passive voice
The participant stated…not…The participants were asked Use third person point of view instead of first person point of view. The study supported ... not….I found out …… However, this depends on the journal and/or the instructor. If in doubt, ask your instructor. (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, pg. 77) Example Example

17 Language Use clear and concise language: avoid interpretive language
Studies do not prove, they support Do not say, “This study proved that ...” Instead say, “The study showed ...” Use simple, descriptive adjectives and plain language (APA, 2010, pg 65-67)

18 Avoiding Bias in Language
Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. Not specific: over 15 years of age Specific: 15- to 20-year-olds Be sensitive to labels. Refer to people in a culturally sensitive manner that reflects their cultural preferences. Acknowledge participation. State “The children completed the survey…” instead of “The survey was administered to the children…” (APA, 2010, p )

19 Avoiding Bias: Disabilities
Do not focus on disability unless it is crucial to a story. Put people first, not their disability. a child with a learning disability not a learning disabled child Emphasize abilities, not limitations. Do not use negative language. Do not write: Suffers from ______ Instead write: A child with _______ (APA, 2010, p. 73) Example Example

20 Subject/Pronoun Agreement
The student (singular)….his/her (singular) Students (plural)……their (plural) To avoid gender bias use the plural form (students) The teacher who……. NOT…The teacher that (A teacher is a person, not an object. ) (Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, & Frels, 2009)

21 Subject/Verb Agreement
Your subject and verb must agree in number (singular and plural). The words data and phenomena are plural. Correct: The data indicate that….. Incorrect: The data indicates that…. Correct: The phenomena occur…. Incorrect: The phenomena occurs…. Example Example (APA, 2010, p. 79)

22 Grammar: Since vs. Because
Use “since” to refer only to time Three years have passed since the beginning of the study. Use “because” right before an explanation of something The student had difficulty with reading comprehension because of his/her limited English proficiency. (APA, 2010, p. 84) Example Example

23 Grammar: While vs. Although
Use “while” for simultaneous events only! The participants completed the survey while at school. Use “although” to show contrast of ideas Although these findings support _____, the results are not typical. (APA, 2010, p. 84) Example Example

24 Numbers Expressed in Numerals
Use numerals to express: All numbers 10 and above Example years old Numbers preceding a unit of measurement Example a 5-mg dose Fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios, percentiles & quartiles Examples a ratio of 16:1 the 5th percentile Time, dates, ages, scores and points on a scale Examples hour 15 minutes scored 5 on a 8-point scale (APA, 2010, p )

25 Numbers Expressed in Words
Use words to express numbers below 10 Use words anytime a number begins a sentence, title, or heading Common fractions one fifth of the class (APA, 2010, pg.112) Example

26 Formatting

27 Four Sections Ask instructor about assignment requirements.
An APA paper may include four major sections: Title Page Abstract Main Body References

28 Title Page Header The title page header includes:
“Running Head” in a mixture of capital and lowercase letters followed by the title of the paper in all capital letters aligned to the left. At the far right of the page header is the page number (numbered consecutively). Running Head: APA FORMAT (Note: The title page header includes “Running Head” and is different than the other pages) (Angeli et al., 2010) Example Running Head Colon Title Page #

29 Page Header Page header is noted on the top of every page Every page after the title page has a page header that includes the title of the paper in all capital letters aligned to the left and the page number (numbered consecutively) aligned to the right APA FORMAT 2 Example Title Page # (Angeli et al., 2010)

30 Running head: APA FORMAT 1 State University of New York at New Paltz
Title Page Running head Running head: APA FORMAT APA Format Kathleen Golly State University of New York at New Paltz Page number (capital letters) Title of paper Title of paper Author’s name Institutional Affiliation (APA, 2010, p. 41)

31 * Ask course instructor if abstract is required *
Page header: TITLE OF PAPER “Abstract” (centered, at the top of the page) Brief (between 150 and 250 words) summary of your paper Accurate, concise, and specific language. * Ask course instructor if abstract is required * (APA, 2010, pg. 41)

32 Headings Different levels of headings Use consecutively Level Format 1
(APA, 2010, p. 62) Level Format 1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings 2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period. 5 indented, italicized, lowercase heading with period.

33 Sample Headings Methods (Level 1) Site of Study (Level 2)
Participant Population (Level 2) Teachers. (Level 3) Students. (Level 3) Results (Level 1) Spatial Ability (Level 2) Test one. (Level 3) Teachers with training (Level 4) (Angeli et al., 2010)

34 Citing Sources

35 Plagiarism “Plagiarism is the representation, intentional or unintentional, of someone else's words or ideas as one's own” (State University of New York at New Paltz, n.d., para 4).

36 Penalties for Plagiarism
Plagiarizing is a form of larceny punishable by a fine and may result in academic disciplinary action. “The academic penalty may range, for instance, from a reprimand accompanied by guidance about how to avoid plagiarism in the future to failure for the course (State University of New York at New Paltz, n.d., para 5).”

37 How to Avoid Plagiarism
You must correctly cite the use of another person’s words or ideas in your paper. You must cite all direct quotes, paraphrases, and the use of other people’s ideas in your paper. If you use only an author’s ideas and change the words, you must clearly identify the source of the ideas. For more information on the New Paltz Academic Integrity Policy, visit For more information on types of plagiarism and how to avoid plagiarism, visit (State University of New York at New Paltz, n.d.)

38 In-text Citations: Paraphrases
You must cite anything that is not your original idea or words Cite all paraphrases in the body of your paper (Author’s last name, year). The study supported the finding that children learn best through multisensory approaches (Smith, 2002). Punctuation mark outside parentheses (APA, 2010, p ) Example

39 In-text Citations: Direct Quotes
You must cite anything that is not your original idea or words. Cite all direct quotes in the body of your paper. Write a lead-in phrase for direct quotes. Lead in phrase “__________” (Last name, year, p. #). OR Lead in phrase Last name (year) “_________________” (p. #). Do not start a sentence with a direct quote. According to Smith (2000) “___________”(p. 15). (APA, 2010, p ) Example

40 Direct Quote Formatting Examples
Include page number Smith (2002) stated “___________”(p. 11). OR Children learn best by “______________” (Smith, 2002, p.11). Children learn best through “______” (Smith, 2002, p. 11) and hands-on learning experiences. Include page number Citation right after quote

41 Direct Quotes: Forty Words or Less
Use quotation marks Keep the quote within the paragraph According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources" (p.199). Example (Angeli et al., 2010)

42 Direct Quotes: Forty Words or More
No quotation marks Indent entire quote ½ inch from the left margin Do not indent the first line more than the rest of the quote Maintain double spacing Parenthetical citation comes after punctuation mark Jones' (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199) Example (Angeli et al., 2010)

43 In-text Citations Type of citation First citation in text
Subsequent citations in text Parenthetical format, first citation in text Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text One work by one author Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) One work by three authors Gilsenan, Ramirez, and Smith (1999) Gilsenan et al. (1999) (Gilsenan, Ramirez, & Smith, 1999) (Gilsenan et al., 1999) One work by four authors Gilsenan, Ramirez, Soo, and Smith (2008) Gilsenan et al. (2008) (Gilsenan, Ramirez, Soo, & Smith, 2008) (Gilsenan et al., 2008) One work by five authors Gilsenan, Ramirez, Hicks, Soo, and Smith (2003) Gilsenan et al. (2003) (Gilsenan, Ramirez, Hicks, Soo, & Smith, 2003) (Gilsenan et al., 2003) One work by six or more authors Smith et al. (2005) (Smith et al., 2005) Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) NIMN (2003) (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003) (NIMH, 2003) Groups (no abbreviation) as authors University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (Angeli et al., 2010)

44 In-text Citations Remember to include page numbers for all
direct quotes For 1-2 authors: List both last names every time! For 3-5 authors: List all last names the first time, then use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” for subsequent entries For 6+ authors: List the first author’s last name and et al. (List all authors on the reference page)

45 In-text Citations: No Authors
Unknown author: Cite by the title. -Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined -Titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Example (“Behavior Management,” 2005). Organization as author: Write out the organization’s full name the first time with any abbreviation in brackets (National Education Association [NEA], 2011). Subsequent citations: use abbreviation (NEA, 2011). (Angeli et al., 2010) Example Example

46 Reference General Guidelines
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article or book title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Social skills and self-efficacy for exceptional children Note: Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word. (Angeli et al., 2010) Example

47 Reference General Guidelines
If multiple sources by the exact same author(s) list them by date (earliest first) on the reference page Capitalize all major words in journal titles. Journal of Learning Disabilities Example

48 References 1. First: Decide what type of source it is
2. Next: Refer to Purdue Online Writing Lab or the APA manual (6th Edition) 3. Locate sample citation and copy format exactly OR 1. Decide what type of source it is 2. Use the automatic citation feature of the database AND 3. Adjust the citation based on the Purdue Online Writing Lab or the APA manual (6th Edition)

49 Common Reference Examples
Basic Format for Books: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher. Article from Database: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, 8(3), doi: (Angeli et al., 2010)

50 Common Reference Examples
Newspaper Article Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from Nonperiodical Web Page Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from address (See APA manual or Purdue OWL for more detailed explanations and additional reference types) (Angeli et al., 2010)

51 How to Cite DOIs DOI: Digital Object Identifier
APA now requires that you cite DOIs when available. You do not need to cite the database from which the article was retrieved Some journal articles have DOIs and some do not Mosteller, F., Nave, B., & Miech, E. J. (2004). Why we need a structured abstract in education research. Educational Researcher, 33(1), doi: / Example (APA, 2010, pg )

52 How to locate DOIs DOIs are usually located on the first page of an article often in the upper right hand corner near the copyright information. Sage Premier consistently lists DOIs on the title page of the journal article. If you cannot find the DOI, check the article title in the SAGE premier database and try to locate the DOI that way. (APA, 2010, pg. 189)

53 Now You Try Go to Sage Premier. Browse journals by discipline.
Click on education under social sciences. Select The Journal of Special Education. Search for “CBM.” Locate the article The predictive validity of CBM writing indices for eighth-grade students. The DOI is located on the first page. (see next slide)

54 The Journal of Special Education
______________________________________________________ The Predictive Validity of CBM Writing Indices for Eighth-Grade Students Janelle M. Amato and Marley W. Watkins J Spec Educ : 195 originally published online 27 March 2009 DOI: / The online version of this article can be found at: _____________________________________________________________ Published by: Hammill Institute on Disabilities and

55 No DOIs Some articles do not have DOIs
If you accessed the article from an online periodical or online journal that is only available online and not in print, you should provide the website for the homepage of the journal. Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from If you accessed the article from a database, you do not need to provide the website for the database. Mosteller, F., Nave, B., & Miech, E. J. (2004). Why we need a structured abstract in education research. Educational Researcher, 33(1), Example Example (Angeli et al., 2010)

56 Reference Page The reference list must be double-spaced, and entries should have a hanging indent (see example on next page) Entries must be listed in alphabetical order The word “References” should be centered at the top of the page (APA, 2010, p. 178)

57 Reference Page Sample APA FORMAT 23 References
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010). APA format and styling guide. Retrieved from Hanging indent (Angeli et al., 2010)

58 Advanced APA

59 Tables vs. Figures (APA, 2010, p. 125).
A table shows numerical values or textual information “arranged in an orderly display of columns and rows” (APA, 2010, p. 125). A figure can be a chart, a photograph, a graph, a scatter plot, a drawing or any other illustration. (APA, 2010, p. 125).

60 Tables Example: Double space Table 1 Word list: Summary of performance
Use only horizontal lines when needed for clarity Do not use vertical lines Title of table in italics Number tables consecutively May include a “note” under table if information is needed to understand table. Example: Double space Table 1 Word list: Summary of performance (APA, 2010, p. 129) Grade Sight Analysis Total Level 1 19 Independent 2 16 17 Instructional 3 12 4 Note: Sight indicates the number of words read correctly on the first try. Analysis indicates the number of missed words that were corrected when reread a second time. Total indicates the total number of words read correctly.

61 Figures Example: Title of figure in italics
Number figures consecutively Include a note at the bottom if information is needed for clarity Example: Double space Figure 1 Graphic Similarity of Substitution Miscues (Angeli et al., 2010) Note. This figure shows the graphic similarity in the beginning, middle, and end of substitution miscues.

62 Additional Resources 1. APA Formatting and Style Guide. Provides detailed explanation and examples of all components of APA. 2. Free tutorial on APA. Includes specific examples. 3. Specific examples of references. Explains DOIs. mat=open page=1094

63 References American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010). APA format and styling guide. Retrieved from Bachand, R. G., & Sawallis, P. P. (2003). Accuracy in the identification of scholarly and peer- reviewed journals and the peer-review process across disciplines. Serials Librarian, 45(2), Retrieved from Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Combs, J. P., Slate, J. R., & Frels, R. K. (2009). Editorial: Evidence-based guidelines for avoiding the most common APA errors in journal article submissions. Research in the Schools, 16(2), 1. Retrieved from State University of New York at New Paltz (n.d.). Academic integrity. In Academic policies and procedures. Retrieved from


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