Presentation on theme: "Special Education Program at SUNY New Paltz"— Presentation transcript:
1 Special Education Program at SUNY New Paltz Guide to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological AssociationSpecial Education Program at SUNY New Paltz
2 APA TutorialThis Powerpoint presentation is designed to provide you with the basics of APA format and other general writing guidelines. It is not to be considered a comprehensive source. For complete APA requirements, refer to the APA publication manual (6th Edition). You also may want to consult the resources provided at the end of this tutorial, such as the Purdue Online Writing Lab.
4 Peer-reviewed Articles “Peer-reviewed or refereed journals are publications that have their submitted articles evaluated by outside experts (peers) in the subject area (Bachand & Sawallis, 2003, p. 40).”
5 Locating Peer-reviewed Articles via Library Databases 1. Go to library databases on the New Paltz library website.2. Search by subject and select education.3. Select an education database such as Education ResearchComplete.4. Perform a key word search: Use key words or phrasesthat relate to your topic.Make sure to go to check the box marked “Scholarly (Peer-reviewed)Journals” on the search page
6 Now You Try Go to library databases. Search by subject and select education.Click on Education Research Complete.Enter “positive behavioral support” and “elementary school” in two separate boxes for the key word search.Check the box marked “Scholarly (Peer- reviewed) Journals” on the search page.Click search.
7 Sample Databases Education Education Research Complete ERIC (EBSCO) Multi-subjectAcademic Search CompleteSage PremierJSTOR
8 Locating Peer-reviewed Articles via Journals If you already know the name of a journalGo to library journals on the library homepage.Type the name of the journal in the search.Then, you can search for an article by title or by a key word search.
9 Now You Try Go to library journals on the library homepage. Search for the journal title “Exceptional Children” in the search bar.Now you can search for an article title.“Using Principles of Behavior Modification to Teach Behavior Modification”orUse the listed databases that contain the journal and do a key word search.“Behavior modification”ExampleExample
10 Locating Peer-reviewed Articles via Journals If you do not know the name of a journalGo to library homepage.Browse journals by subject.Select“Social sciences”thenEducation-generalorEducation- special topicsThen search within the journal of your choice.
11 Sample Scholarly Journals Evaluation & Research in EducationTeacher Education & Special EducationExceptional ChildrenJournal of Educational ResearchJournal of Special EducationJournal of Learning DisabilitiesLearning Disability QuarterlyJournal of Research and Practice in Special EducationTeaching Exceptional ChildrenIntervention in School and ClinicDisability Studies Quarterly
12 Database Generated Citations Caution: Database generated APA citations are NOT correctYou must consult APA guidelinesSee example on next slide
13 Database Generated Citations Example Gresham, F. M. (1984). Social Skills and Self-Efficacy forExceptional Children. Exceptional Children, 51(3),Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Correct citation:Gresham, F. M. (1984). Social skills and self-efficacy forexceptional children. Exceptional Children, 51(3),doi:Note: APA 6th edition does not require listing the database source (APA, 2010, p. 192)Must list DOI if available (see slide no. 33)LowercaseCite DOIwhen availableItalic
15 Basics Double space entire paper including headings Two spaces after end punctuation in sentences (recommended)Use 10 pt to 12 pt Times New Roman or similar font1 inch margins all aroundIndent paragraphs ½ inchNumber pages consecutively beginning with the title page(Angeli et al., 2010)
16 Voice and Point of View Use an active voice not a passive voice The participant stated…not…The participants were askedUse third person point of view instead of first person point of view.The study supported ... not….I found out ……However, this depends on the journal and/or the instructor. If in doubt, ask your instructor.(American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, pg. 77)ExampleExample
17 Language Use clear and concise language: avoid interpretive language Studies do not prove, they supportDo not say, “This study proved that ...”Instead say, “The study showed ...”Use simple, descriptive adjectives and plain language(APA, 2010, pg 65-67)
18 Avoiding Bias in Language Describe at the appropriate level of specificity.Not specific: over 15 years of ageSpecific: 15- to 20-year-oldsBe sensitive to labels.Refer to people in a culturally sensitive manner that reflects their cultural preferences.Acknowledge participation.State “The children completed the survey…” instead of “The survey was administered to the children…”(APA, 2010, p )
19 Avoiding Bias: Disabilities Do not focus on disability unless it is crucial to a story.Put people first, not their disability.a child with a learning disabilitynota learning disabled childEmphasize abilities, not limitations. Do not use negative language.Do not write: Suffers from ______Instead write: A child with _______(APA, 2010, p. 73)ExampleExample
20 Subject/Pronoun Agreement The student (singular)….his/her (singular)Students (plural)……their (plural)To avoid gender bias use the plural form (students)The teacher who……. NOT…The teacher that(A teacher is a person, not an object. )(Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, & Frels, 2009)
21 Subject/Verb Agreement Your subject and verb must agree in number (singular and plural).The words data and phenomena are plural.Correct: The data indicate that…..Incorrect: The data indicates that….Correct: The phenomena occur….Incorrect: The phenomena occurs….ExampleExample(APA, 2010, p. 79)
22 Grammar: Since vs. Because Use “since” to refer only to timeThree years have passed since the beginning of the study.Use “because” right before an explanation of somethingThe student had difficulty with reading comprehension because of his/her limited English proficiency.(APA, 2010, p. 84)ExampleExample
23 Grammar: While vs. Although Use “while” for simultaneous events only!The participants completed the survey while at school.Use “although” to show contrast of ideasAlthough these findings support _____, the results are not typical.(APA, 2010, p. 84)ExampleExample
24 Numbers Expressed in Numerals Use numerals to express:All numbers 10 and aboveExample years oldNumbers preceding a unit of measurementExample a 5-mg doseFractions, decimals, percentages, ratios, percentiles & quartilesExamples a ratio of 16:1the 5th percentileTime, dates, ages, scores and points on a scaleExamples hour 15 minutesscored 5 on a 8-point scale(APA, 2010, p )
25 Numbers Expressed in Words Use words to express numbers below 10Use words anytime a number begins a sentence, title, or headingCommon fractionsone fifth of the class(APA, 2010, pg.112)Example
27 Four Sections Ask instructor about assignment requirements. An APA paper may include four major sections:Title PageAbstractMain BodyReferences
28 Title Page Header The title page header includes: “Running Head” in a mixture of capital and lowercaseletters followed by the title of the paper in all capital lettersaligned to the left. At the far right of the page header is thepage number (numbered consecutively).Running Head: APA FORMAT(Note: The title page header includes “Running Head” and is different than theother pages)(Angeli et al., 2010)ExampleRunning HeadColonTitlePage #
29 Page HeaderPage header is noted on the top of every pageEvery page after the title page has a page header that includes the title of the paper in all capital letters aligned to the left and the page number (numbered consecutively) aligned to the rightAPA FORMAT 2ExampleTitlePage #(Angeli et al., 2010)
30 Running head: APA FORMAT 1 State University of New York at New Paltz Title PageRunning headRunning head: APA FORMATAPA FormatKathleen GollyState University of New York at New PaltzPage number(capital letters)Title of paperTitle of paperAuthor’s nameInstitutional Affiliation(APA, 2010, p. 41)
31 * Ask course instructor if abstract is required * Page header:TITLE OF PAPER“Abstract” (centered, at the top of the page)Brief (between 150 and 250 words) summary of your paperAccurate, concise, and specific language.* Ask course instructor if abstract is required *(APA, 2010, pg. 41)
32 Headings Different levels of headings Use consecutively Level Format 1 (APA, 2010, p. 62)LevelFormat1Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings2Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings3Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with period.4Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period.5indented, italicized, lowercase heading with period.
33 Sample Headings Methods (Level 1) Site of Study (Level 2) Participant Population (Level 2)Teachers. (Level 3)Students. (Level 3)Results (Level 1)Spatial Ability (Level 2)Test one. (Level 3)Teachers with training (Level 4)(Angeli et al., 2010)
35 Plagiarism“Plagiarism is the representation, intentional or unintentional, of someone else's words or ideas as one's own” (State University of New York at New Paltz, n.d., para 4).
36 Penalties for Plagiarism Plagiarizing is a form of larceny punishable by a fine and may result in academic disciplinary action. “The academic penalty may range, for instance, from a reprimand accompanied by guidance about how to avoid plagiarism in the future to failure for the course (State University of New York at New Paltz, n.d., para 5).”
37 How to Avoid Plagiarism You must correctly cite the use of another person’s words or ideas in your paper.You must cite all direct quotes, paraphrases, and the use of other people’s ideas in your paper.If you use only an author’s ideas and change the words, you must clearly identify the source of the ideas.For more information on the New Paltz Academic Integrity Policy, visitFor more information on types of plagiarism and how to avoid plagiarism, visit(State University of New York at New Paltz, n.d.)
38 In-text Citations: Paraphrases You must cite anything that is not your original idea or wordsCite all paraphrases in the body of your paper(Author’s last name, year).The study supported the finding that children learn bestthrough multisensory approaches (Smith, 2002).Punctuation mark outside parentheses(APA, 2010, p )Example
39 In-text Citations: Direct Quotes You must cite anything that is not your original idea or words.Cite all direct quotes in the body of your paper.Write a lead-in phrase for direct quotes.Lead in phrase “__________” (Last name, year, p. #).OR Lead in phrase Last name (year) “_________________” (p. #).Do not start a sentence with a direct quote. According to Smith (2000) “___________”(p. 15).(APA, 2010, p )Example
40 Direct Quote Formatting Examples Include page numberSmith (2002) stated “___________”(p. 11).ORChildren learn best by “______________”(Smith, 2002, p.11).Children learn best through “______” (Smith, 2002, p. 11) and hands-on learning experiences.Include page numberCitation right after quote
41 Direct Quotes: Forty Words or Less Use quotation marksKeep the quote within the paragraphAccording to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficultyusing APA style, especially when it was their first time citingsources" (p.199).Example(Angeli et al., 2010)
42 Direct Quotes: Forty Words or More No quotation marksIndent entire quote ½ inch from the left marginDo not indent the first line more than the rest of the quoteMaintain double spacingParenthetical citation comes after punctuation markJones' (1998) study found the following:Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it wastheir first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed tothe fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or toask their teacher for help. (p. 199)Example(Angeli et al., 2010)
43 In-text Citations Type of citation First citation in text Subsequent citations in textParenthetical format, first citation in textParenthetical format, subsequent citations in textOne work by one authorWalker (2007)(Walker, 2007)One work by two authorsWalker and Allen (2004)(Walker & Allen, 2004)One work by three authorsGilsenan, Ramirez, and Smith (1999)Gilsenan et al. (1999)(Gilsenan, Ramirez, & Smith, 1999)(Gilsenan et al., 1999)One work by four authorsGilsenan, Ramirez, Soo, and Smith (2008)Gilsenan et al. (2008)(Gilsenan, Ramirez, Soo, & Smith, 2008)(Gilsenan et al., 2008)One work by five authorsGilsenan, Ramirez, Hicks, Soo, and Smith (2003)Gilsenan et al. (2003)(Gilsenan, Ramirez, Hicks, Soo, & Smith, 2003)(Gilsenan et al., 2003)One work by six or more authorsSmith et al. (2005)(Smith et al., 2005)Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authorsNational Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)NIMN (2003)(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)(NIMH, 2003)Groups (no abbreviation) as authorsUniversity of Pittsburgh (2005)(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)(Angeli et al., 2010)
44 In-text Citations Remember to include page numbers for all direct quotesFor 1-2 authors: List both last names every time!For 3-5 authors: List all last names the first time, then use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” for subsequent entriesFor 6+ authors: List the first author’s last name and et al. (List all authors on the reference page)
45 In-text Citations: No Authors Unknown author: Cite by the title.-Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined -Titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.Example (“Behavior Management,” 2005).Organization as author:Write out the organization’s full name the first time with any abbreviation in brackets(National Education Association [NEA], 2011).Subsequent citations: use abbreviation(NEA, 2011).(Angeli et al., 2010)ExampleExample
46 Reference General Guidelines Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article or book title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.Social skills and self-efficacy for exceptional childrenNote: Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.(Angeli et al., 2010)Example
47 Reference General Guidelines If multiple sources by the exact same author(s) list them by date (earliest first) on the reference pageCapitalize all major words in journal titles.Journal of Learning DisabilitiesExample
48 References 1. First: Decide what type of source it is 2. Next: Refer to Purdue Online Writing Lab or the APA manual (6th Edition)3. Locate sample citation and copy format exactlyOR1. Decide what type of source it is2. Use the automatic citation feature of the databaseAND3. Adjust the citation based on the Purdue Online Writing Lab or the APA manual (6th Edition)
49 Common Reference Examples Basic Format for Books:Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capitalletter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.Article from Database:Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title,8(3), doi:(Angeli et al., 2010)
50 Common Reference Examples Newspaper ArticleAuthor, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper.Retrieved fromNonperiodical Web PageAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title ofdocument. Retrieved from address(See APA manual or Purdue OWL for more detailed explanations and additional reference types)(Angeli et al., 2010)
51 How to Cite DOIs DOI: Digital Object Identifier APA now requires that you cite DOIs when available.You do not need to cite the database from which the article was retrievedSome journal articles have DOIs and some do notMosteller, F., Nave, B., & Miech, E. J. (2004). Why we need a structured abstractin education research. Educational Researcher, 33(1),doi: /Example(APA, 2010, pg )
52 How to locate DOIsDOIs are usually located on the first page of an article often in the upper right hand corner near the copyright information.Sage Premier consistently lists DOIs on the title page of the journal article.If you cannot find the DOI, check the article title in the SAGE premier database and try to locate the DOI that way.(APA, 2010, pg. 189)
53 Now You Try Go to Sage Premier. Browse journals by discipline. Click on education under social sciences.Select The Journal of Special Education.Search for “CBM.”Locate the article The predictive validity of CBM writing indices for eighth-grade students.The DOI is located on the first page.(see next slide)
54 The Journal of Special Education ______________________________________________________The Predictive Validity of CBM Writing Indices for Eighth-Grade StudentsJanelle M. Amato and Marley W. WatkinsJ Spec Educ : 195 originally published online 27 March 2009DOI: /The online version of this article can be found at:_____________________________________________________________Published by:Hammill Institute on Disabilitiesand
55 No DOIs Some articles do not have DOIs If you accessed the article from an online periodical or online journal that is only available online and not in print, you should provide the website for the homepage of the journal.Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of OnlinePeriodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved fromIf you accessed the article from a database, you do not need to provide the website for the database.Mosteller, F., Nave, B., & Miech, E. J. (2004). Why we need a structured abstractin education research. Educational Researcher, 33(1),ExampleExample(Angeli et al., 2010)
56 Reference PageThe reference list must be double-spaced, and entries should have a hanging indent (see example on next page)Entries must be listed in alphabetical orderThe word “References” should be centered at the top of the page(APA, 2010, p. 178)
57 Reference Page Sample APA FORMAT 23 References American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of theAmerican Psychological Association 6th ed. Washington, DC:American Psychological Association.Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L.,& Brizee, A. (2010). APA format and styling guide. Retrieved fromHangingindent(Angeli et al., 2010)
59 Tables vs. Figures (APA, 2010, p. 125). A table shows numerical values or textual information “arranged in an orderly display of columns and rows” (APA, 2010, p. 125).A figure can be a chart, a photograph, a graph, a scatter plot, a drawing or any other illustration.(APA, 2010, p. 125).
60 Tables Example: Double space Table 1 Word list: Summary of performance Use only horizontal lines when needed for clarityDo not use vertical linesTitle of table in italicsNumber tables consecutivelyMay include a “note” under table if information is needed to understand table.Example:Double spaceTable 1Word list: Summary of performance(APA, 2010, p. 129)GradeSightAnalysisTotalLevel119Independent21617Instructional3124Note: Sight indicates the number of words read correctly on the first try. Analysis indicates the number of missed words that were corrected when reread a second time. Total indicates the total number of words read correctly.
61 Figures Example: Title of figure in italics Number figures consecutivelyInclude a note at the bottom ifinformation is needed for clarityExample:Double spaceFigure 1Graphic Similarity of Substitution Miscues(Angeli et al., 2010)Note. This figure shows the graphic similarity in the beginning,middle, and end of substitution miscues.
62 Additional Resources1. APA Formatting and Style Guide. Provides detailed explanation and examples of all components of APA. 2. Free tutorial on APA. Includes specific examples. 3. Specific examples of references. Explains DOIs. mat=open page=1094
63 ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A.(2010). APA format and styling guide. Retrieved fromBachand, R. G., & Sawallis, P. P. (2003). Accuracy in the identification of scholarly and peer-reviewed journals and the peer-review process across disciplines. Serials Librarian, 45(2),Retrieved fromOnwuegbuzie, A. J., Combs, J. P., Slate, J. R., & Frels, R. K. (2009). Editorial: Evidence-basedguidelines for avoiding the most common APA errors in journal article submissions.Research in the Schools, 16(2), 1. Retrieved fromState University of New York at New Paltz (n.d.). Academic integrity. In Academic policies and procedures. Retrieved from