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Presentation on theme: "1 MIXED-SPECIES BIRD FLOCKS IN SOUTHEASTERN PERU."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chestnut-eared Aracari

3 Paradise Tanager

4 fruit collection, Cocha Juarez

5 Golden-headed Manakin

6 Red-headed Manakin

7 Paullinia sp.

8 Chestnut-winged Hookbill

9 Cycloptera sp.

10 Typophyllum sp.

11 Acanthops tuberculata

12 Caligo sp.

13 snake-mimicking chrysalis

14 Swallowtail chrysalis Papilio sp.

15 Wedge-billed Woodcreeper MIXED-SPECIES FLOCKS Characteristics of flocks insectivorous species permanent associations with jointly held territories understory flocks & canopy flocks up to 20 or more species at one time in understory flocks up to 30 or more species at one time in canopy flocks composition of core species similar from flock to flock one pair of each species with their young of the year jointly defended territory all species nest within the joint territory flock members spend their lives in the same flock

16 16 Advantages of Flocking protection from predators members have use of a larger exclusive area than they would be able to control individually Barred Forest-Falcon

17 CORE SPECIES UNDERSTORY MIXED-SPECIES FLOCKS Elegant Woodcreeper Olive-backed Foliage-Gleaner Plain Xenops Bluish-slate Antshrike Dusky-throated Antshrike White-flanked Antwren Long-winged Antwren Gray Antwren White-eyed Antwren Tawny-crowned Greenlet Red-crowned Ant-Tanager SWITCHING SPECIES Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Olivaceous Woodcreeper Yellow-margined Flycatcher PATCH SPECIES Fasciated Antshrike Plain-winged Antshrike White-shouldered Antshrike Spot-winged Antshrike Gray Antbird Buff-throated Woodcreeper Plain-throated Antwren Black-faced Antbird TEMPORARY & OCCASIONAL SPECIES

18 CORE SPECIES CANOPY MIXED-SPECIES FLOCKS Chestnut-shouldered Antwren Yellow-Olive Flycatcher Dusky-capped Greenlet White-winged Shrike-Tanager Flame-crested Tanager White-shouldered Tanager REGULAR SPECIES White-fronted Nunbird Olivaceous Woodcreeper Lineated Woodcreeper Chestnut-winged Hookbill Chestnut-winged Foliage-Gleaner Rufous-rumped Foliage-Gleaner Rufous-tailed Foliage-Gleaner Streaked Xenops Spot-winged Antshrike Sclater’s Antwren Pygmy Antwren Gray Antwren Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Forest Elaenia White-lored Tyrannulet Slender-footed Tyrannulet Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Black-capped Becard Pink-throated Becard White-vented Euphonia Orange-bellied Euphonia Rufous-bellied Euphonia TEMPORARY SPECIES Paradise Tanager Green & Gold Tanager Turquoise Tanager Opal-crowned Tanager Opal-rumped Tanager Blue Dacnis Black-faced Dacnis Yellow-bellied Dacnis Purple Honeycreeper Green Honeycreeper

19 canopy mixed-species flock territories understory mixed-species flock territories

20 20 Flock species are able to coexist because they exploit different niches, foraging in slightly different manners for different types and sizes of prey.

21 Wedge-billed Woodcreeper

22 Buff-throated Woodcreeper

23 Red-billed Scythebill

24 Gray-crowned Flycatcher

25 Olivaceous Flatbill

26 Orange-bellied Euphonia

27 Gilded Barbet

28 White-winged Shrike-Tanager - canopy flock sentinel and leader male female Bluish-slate Antshrike - understory flock sentinel and leader male female

29 Some Boreal Migrants That Join Mixed-Species Flocks Blackpoll Warbler Scarlet Tanager Red-eyed Vireo

30 30 Some Austral Migrants that Join Mixed-Species Flocks Swainson’s Flycatcher Brown-crested Flycatcher Greenish Elaenia

31 Pygiptila stellaris Thamnophilu s schistaceus Thamnomane s caesius Thamnomane s ardesiacus Pygiptila, Thamnophilus & Thamnomanes Antshrikes

32 Myrmotherula axillaris Myrmotherula Antwrens - part 1 Myrmotherul a hauxwelli Myrmotherlu a menetriesii Myrmotherula longipennis

33 Myrmotherul a sclateri Myrmotherul a brachyura Myrmotherul a leucopthalm us Myrmotherula Antwrens - part 2

34 Philydor & Automolus Foliage-Gleaners Philydor erythrocercu m Automolus infuscatus


36 Ornate Antwren Ornate Antwren Warbling Antbird Striated Antbird Ornate Antwren Ihering’s Antwren Peruvian Recurvebill Dusky-cheeked Foliage-gleaner Rufous-headed Woodpecker Red-billed Scythebill Brown-rumped Foliage-gleaner Bamboo Antshrike Warbling Antbird Manu Antbird Goeldi’s Antbird Cabanis’ Spinetail Large-headed Flatbill Dusky-tailed Flatbill Flammulated Pygmy-Tyrant White-cheeked Tody-Tyrant Long-crested Pygmy-Tyrant Rufous Twistwing


38 Red-eyed Vireo

39 Scarlet Tanager

40 Blackpoll Warbler - adult male

41 Blackpoll Warbler

42 Eastern Kingbird

43 Swainson’s Thrush

44 Green and Gold Tanager

45 Schizolobium sp.

46 Chorisia insignis and Schizolobium sp.

47 ground level

48 subcanopy - 21 meters above ground

49 canopy view at InkaTerra’s Reserva Amazonica (formerly Cuzco-Amazonica)

50 structure of a tropical rainforest

51 A giant Ceiba pentandra - Silk-cotton or Kapok Tree at Tres Chimbadas

52 An emergent Brazil Nut tree at Explorer’s Inn

53 mass of lianas on a tree trunk

54 vine-covered trunk

55 Rufous Motmot

56 Squirrel Cuckoo

57 White-necked Puffbird

58 Common Potoo

59 Combretum assimile

60 Gould’s Jewelfront

61 Orange-cheeked Parrot

62 Red and Green Macaw


64 Purple Honeycreeper

65 Chorisia insignis



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