2EARLY CULTURES IN PERUThere were a number of early cultures in Peru, including:Chavin (900BC-200BC)Nazca (100BC-800AD)Moche (100AD-800AD)None of these cultures had writing. We know about them from archeology.The Inca, who dominated Peru in the 1400s-1500sAD, build on these earlier cultural foundations
3The Nazca (100BC-800AD) are famous for their geo-glyphs: drawings made in the earth that can be seen from the air.
5The Moche culture (100AD-800AD) is known for beautiful art
6IncaBy 1200AD, the Inca had established a small kingdom in the valley of Cuzco, located in the Andes Mountains of Peru.It grew in to a huge empire.
7Early traditions & beliefs of the Inca The Inca believed that the Inca ruler was descended from the sun god Inti. The moon goddess was Mama Quilla.According to legend, the first Inca ruler was Manco Copac who married his sister-wife, Mama Ocllo. Manco Copac and Mama Ocllo were the children of Inti and Mama Quilla, the god of the sun and the goddess of the moon. They came from Lake Titicaca, which is on the border of Peru and Bolivia.
8Only men from one of 11 noble families who were believed to be descended from Inti could be selected as the Incan ruler.These 11 families were called orejones, “Big Ears”, because of the large plugs they wore in their earlobes
9Traditions and beliefs of the Inca Worship of dead rulers:Dead rulers were preserved as sacred mummiesThey were housed in special chambers, brought to important events such as banquets, and paraded about.They were (symbolically) fed and dressed each day, and consulted for advice
10PachacutiHe was a younger son of an Inca ruler; when an enemy state attacked the Inca, his father and brother fled. Pachacuti took command, defeated the enemy & took the throne in 1438ADHe went on to conquer a vast amount of land, and has been compared to Alex the Great.He was the ruler most responsible for building the Inca EmpireAfter him, rulers continued conquering the lands around them.
11By 1500, the Inca Empire stretched 2,500 miles along the west coast of South America. The Inca called their land Tihuantinsuya, or “Land of the Four Quarters”.The Inca themselves numbered about 40,000 people, but they ruled about 16 million people
12Inca conquestsThe Inca had a powerful military, but used force only if necessary.Before attacking, they gave enemy states the option of honorable surrender.
13Inca Emperor The emperor was called the Sapa Inca His chief wife, who was also his sister, was called the Coya. They were believed to be descended from Inti, the Sun god.The Emperor had complete power and owned all of the land.
14EmperorThe Emperor wore a headdress of vicuna wool tassels across his forehead. Everyday he wore a new, finely woven garment. Then it was stored for a year, and at a special ceremony all of the clothing was burned.He rode on a litter with runner going in front to announce his arrival.When visitors met him, they were required to take off their sandals and wear symbolic burdens on their backs.
15Officials below the Emperor The Inca government had a complex bureaucracy.Below the Sapa Inca were the four chief governors of the four quarters of the Empire.Below the chief governors provincial governors who ruled in the provinces.Below them were hundreds of higher officials, and thousands of lower officials, who enforced the Sapa Inca’s laws.
16SocietyAt the bottom of the social pyramid were the farmers, who were grouped into units called ayllus. An ayllu was basically an extended family group, but non-related people could also be grouped into the same ayllu.Each ayllu was allotted a piece of land by the government. The members of the ayllu worked the land together.Each group had an official that told them what work to do, what crops to grow, and how to do it.
17Mita system The main type of tax was a labor tax called mita. It required all able-bodied citizens to work for the state a certain number of days every year.Mita workers might labor on state farmlands, produce craft goods for state warehouses, or help build public works, such as roads, palaces or irrigation canals
18The state controls the economy Historians have compared the Incan system to a type of socialism.The Incan state controlled most economic activities, The Inca state allotted land to each ayllu, and told each group what to produce.The Inca were allowed little private commerce or trade.The people received benefits from the government. The aged and disabled were supported by the state. There were public feasts where food and maize beer were distributed as a reward for their labor.
19Cuzco The capital was Cuzco. Cuzco was a splendid city. Cuzco was rebuilt during the reign of Pachacuti in the shape of a crouching mountain lion. Only the highest nobles and priests lived there.The temples and palaces of Cuzco were very large, made out of massive stones, some as heavy as 126 tons. The stones were fitted together without mortar.
20Cuzco-Temple of the Sun The main temple in Cuzco was the Temple of the Sun, dedicated to the sun god IntiAccording to the Spanish, its walls and floor were covered in gold. There was a courtyard with a golden garden, including golden maize plants, golden grass, and a life size herd of 20 llamas and shepherds made of gold.The Inca referred to gold as “sweat of the sun”.
21RoadsOnce of the most spectacular public works project was the system of roads.The 14,000 mile long network of roads and bridges spanned the empireThe roads traversed rugged mountains and harsh deserts.Some parts were paved, and some were not.
22RoadsThere were two main roads ran north-south parallel to each other, one through the mountains, and one along the coastal desert. Many crossroads ran between them.In steep areas, steps were cut into the mountains. Rope suspension bridges crossed steep gorges
23Relay messenger system A system of runners traveled these roads as a kind of postal service.The system worked like a relay race. A runner would hand off a memorized message or package to the next runner waiting a way station.The stations were placed about every mile along the main roads. A message could travel about 140 miles a day.
25Farming terracesThe Inca cut terraces into the mountains to create flat areas for farming.They built an irrigation system that brought water down the mountains to the fields.Recently, some of these Inca terraces have been repaired and brought back into use.
26Inca terrace farmingThe circular terraces at Moray are thought to have been a place where the Inca experimented with raising new types of crops.
28Keeping recordsThe Inca never developed a writing system. History and literature were memorized.For numerical information, the Inca used quipu, a set of knotted strings that could be used to record data.The knots and their position on the cord indicated numbers. The colors of the cords indicated categories of information.
29QuipuThe knots and their position on the cord indicated numbers. For example, to show the number 3643, there would be 3 knots, then 6 knots, then 4 knots, then 3 knots.The colors of the cords indicated categories of information. For example, red indicated warriors, yellow indicated corn
30Religion The chief Inca god was the creator god Viracocha. Below him was the sun god, Inti. Temples to Inti were covered in gold.Inti’s sister-wife was Mama Quilla, the Moon goddess. Temples to her were covered in silver.The Incas also worshipped holy or strange things, called huacas. They might be rocks, mountains, rivers, etc, that the Inca thought had special powers.
31Priests, Mamakuna & Yamakuna Priests led the sun worship.They were assisted by young women, called Mamakuna, “virgins of the sun”, who were like nuns, selected for a lifetime of religious service. They spun special cloth for the emperor and made a special kind of chicha beer.Young men, called Yamacuna, also served as fulltime workers for the state in religious activities.
32Sacrifices. Inca priests offered sacrifices to the gods. Sacrifices might consist of llamas: White llamas were offered to Inti, brown llamas to Viracocha, and spotted llamas to the thunder god. Guinea pigs, chicha beer, and coca leaves were also offered.
33Human sacrifice-Capacocha Sometimes human sacrifice was also made. For example, at the death and coronation of a Sapa Inca, human sacrifices were made. Human sacrifices were also made in times of trouble.These were usually pure, unmarked children and teenagers in a ceremony called Capacocha, in which they were taken to a high mountain to die.
35Everyday life-dietThe Inca diet consisted mainly of potatoes, guinea pigs, corn, and quinoa, a high protein grain. (Guinea pigs were the main source of meat).They had more than 200 kinds of potatoes. They developed a method for freeze-drying potatoes. Freeze dried potatoes, called chuno, were kept in warehouses for times of food shortage, and could be kept indefinitely.
36Everyday life-llamas & alpacas Llamas and alapacas were very important.Llamas were used as pack animals, and their coarse hair was woven to make sacks, blankets & ropes.Alpacas had softer wool, which was woven into clothing
37Everyday life-coca leaves Incas grew coca leaves as a sacred plant. It was strictly controlled by the government.Coca leaves were scattered or burned as offerings to the gods, or chewed to produce a state of ecstasy during religious ceremonies.Because chewing coca leaves releases small amounts of cocaine, workers were given coca leaves to prevent hunger and fatigue when doing hard work, and to help prevent altitude sickness in the high Andes.