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Production and Applications of Multi-Layer 3D Fabrics Muhammad Nadeem Shuakat And Xungai Wang Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University,

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Presentation on theme: "Production and Applications of Multi-Layer 3D Fabrics Muhammad Nadeem Shuakat And Xungai Wang Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Production and Applications of Multi-Layer 3D Fabrics Muhammad Nadeem Shuakat And Xungai Wang Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217, Australia

2 What are Composites? Materials formed by intimately combining two or more discrete physical phases to get superior properties of the individual constituents. Common examples are Natural wood: a composite of cellulose and Lignin. Plywood: a composite of thin wooden sheets and glue. Ancient Bricks: a composite of mud and straw. Cement blocks: a composite of cement and iron wires mesh. Bath tub: a composite of Glass fibre and resin. Polymer matrix and a fibrous material as the reinforcement are the most commonly used examples of composite materials. Most advance forms are materials used in high tech industries.

3 Why Composites? Composites replacing metals minimizing tons of CO 2. Durable composites, need very lesser replacements. Composites are strong and light in weight. Fabric preforms have broad flexibility in design. They can be moulded in complex form and geometry. Their strength and stiffness can be tailored according to end use by changing Layer to layer placement at different angles in laminated preforms. Volume fraction in 3D textile preforms. Ratio of preform and polymer matrix.

4 Technical Textile Sectors Year 20052010 Volume ‘000 tons Value US$ mn Volume ‘000 tons Value US$ mn Oekotech28710394001389 Mobiltech282826861333829282 Indutech262416687325721528 Sporttech115316052138219062 Buildtech2033729625919325 Hometech2499762228538778 Clothtech1413701416568306 Meditech1928667023808238 Agrotech1615656819588079 Protech27958733406857 Packtech2990532936066630 Geotech3199274131203 Total1968110689923774127288

5 Textile Reinforcement Structures Laminated composite preforms BraidingKnittingWeaving Non- Woven 3-D Textile composite preforms Weaving Knitting Non- Woven Braiding Tailored Fibre Placement

6 3-D Textile composite preforms Knitting Braiding Tailored Fibre Placement Thick Non-woven Weaving

7 Knitting In 3D knitted structures, more than one yarn and multiple needle beds are used to get much thicker structures

8 Braiding Different numbers of yarns mounted on spools, cross each other at a certain angle in a circular or pre-defined path to form a circular or specific shaped preforms.

9 Tailored Fibre Placement Tows of carbon fibres are placed in a sheet form at various angles as required by the design of product, stitched by fine mono filament polyester.

10 3D Weaving In 3D weaving the constituent yarns cross at various angles and between different layers to form a 3D mesh or a network like structure.

11 3D Woven Textiles 3D woven fabrics are classified into two categories Basis of Axis Basis of Dimensions

12 Basis of Axis 3- axis fabric (yarns in x, y and z axis) 5- axis fabric (3 axes in x direction and one in each y and z) 7- axis fabric (3 axes each in x and y directions and one in z) 9- axis fabric (3 axes in all x, y and z directions) 13- axis fabric (3 axes in all x, y and z directions and with four further yarns passing through eight diagonally opposite corners)

13 Basis of Dimensions

14 Production of 3D Woven Textiles True 3D Fabrics 2D Woven Fabrics (Multi-Layer Stitched Fabrics)

15 True 3D Fabrics True 3D Fabrics need special machines. These machines can only produce special shaped fabrics. Limited and special use of these machines and fabrics.

16 Why 2D Multi-Layer Stitched Fabrics? Composite manufacturing facility is negligible in Pakistan. Very few industries using prepeg for composite products. We don’t have any share in composite exports for specialized products. Basic structures and materials for prepeg and composite products can be produced using existing infrastructure. Multi-Layer Fabrics don’t require extra investment for machines. At present, we don’t need invest a lot for true 3D textile preforms to enter this market and taking risk for loss of revenue.

17 Production of 3D Multi-Layer Fabrics Multi-Layer Fabrics can be produced on Single Shed Machines Multi Shed Machines Both types of machines can produce multi-layer fabrics, only difference is: Production rate Ease of using multiple kind of yarns in multi-shed weaving machines.

18 Single Shed Weaving Machines One pick at a time Lower production rates.

19 Multi-Shed Weaving Machines Simultaneously multi-picking Higher production rates. Possibility of inserting different materials in different sheds.

20 Single layer fabric Open width two layer fabric Open width three layer fabric Open width four layer fabric Tubular two layer fabric Tubular three layer fabric Tubular four layer fabric Types of Multi-Layer Fabrics

21 How to develop Multi-Layer Fabrics Double Layer Tubular Fabrics Top layer or fabric is denoted by Face (F) and bottom layer or fabric Back (B) Further layers are denoted by middle 1 (m 1 ) and middle 2 (m 2 ). In the resultant design of the multilayer fabric ends may be arranged in F-B-F-B order or any suitable order to get appropriate no of ends of each layer Picks must be always arranged in F-B-F-B sequence to get resulting two-layer-tubular-fabric. The weave repeat is completed on 4ends x 4picks.

22 Tubular fabrics without stitching The top layer ends should always weave only with face pick and back ends with back picks. The top layer ends should always be up on back picks. Back end should always be down on face picks.

23 Tubular fabrics without stitching Rule-1: Face ends will only weave with face picks “X” = face ends raised on face picks “.” = face ends down on face picks

24 Tubular fabrics without stitching Rule-2: Back ends will only weave with back picks “O” = back ends raised on back picks “.“ = back ends down on back picks

25 Tubular fabrics without stitching Rule-3: Face ends raised on back picks and back ends lowered on face picks. “/” = face ends raised on back picks “-” = back ends down on face picks

26 Tubular fabrics without stitching Fabric produced in this way is tubular Two layers each having plain weave Each layer independent of other.

27 Double Layer Tubular Fabrics

28 Multi-Layer Stitched Fabrics

29 Applications of 3D textile structures  Aerospace Industry  Automobile Industry  Construction Industry  Medical Industry  Sports Industry  Defence Industry  Others

30 Aerospace Industry New 787 Dreamliner developed by Boeing company Comprises 50% composite materials with reduced weight More savings in terms of fuel More capacity for passengers and cargo.

31 Automobile Industry By using composite materials: 30% weight reduction without compromising on strength. Carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are 50% lighter than steel. CFRP gives at least same strength as steel. Gives added extra miles to every litre of fuel.

32 Construction Industry Composites are ideal for use in the construction industry because of Their dimensional stability Strength with reduced weight Good impact resistance Low flammability Low maintenance Good design flexibility Composites are used in the form of Panels Pillars Ceiling Floor Tiles

33 Composite material in building "INNOTEX" in Aachen Melaten is the first building fully developed from textile reinforced concrete. RWTH Aachen University in collaboration with Shell developed this building. This is thermally insulated and self supporting building Saving of 420 tons of CO2 gas

34 Medical Industry Being light in weight and robust, fibre reinforced composite materials are used in medical applications. Combination of glass & carbon fibre allows flexibility to minimize breakage in splint supports. The energy storing property of carbon fibre makes it an ideal material for this dynamic ankle foot orthosis.

35 Sports Industry Composite materials are replacing conventional wooden materials to make sticks and rackets lighter Giving sportsmen more freedom of movement with added strength. Sport bicycle manufacturers are using composites to reduce weight. Giving user more freedom in terms of speed with added safety.

36 Defence Industry Composite have become an integral part of defence Use of composites made Hummvee lighter & allowed higher payloads. Safe Passage having concrete composite. Honey comb based tubeless tyres. Usage of composites increased from 2% to 24% of total weight from F15 to F22. By using composite materials in fighter planes, more flight time with the same amount of fuel was achieved. The reduced weight allows more ammunition on the plane, with the added advantage of better and quick manoeuvring

37 Defence Industry


39 Conclusion Textile composites are better source of metal replacement reducing tons of CO 2 emission preserving natural environment. Textile composites can be used in a variety of products and are simplest solution to enter technical textile export markets. 3D textile preforms produced by multi-layer stitched fabrics can be produced on existing infra structure without any further investment. The multi-layer stitched preforms can be developed into more complex shapes and geometries by using jacquards as lifting mechanisms. Multi-shed will give more diverse effect in weft with increased production. Rapier weft insertion gives ease of picking almost any thing can be used. A combination of jacquard lifting, multi-shed and rapier can give more flexibility in producing complex shapes and geometries with more ease.


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