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Composite Materials Ahmed W. Moustafa Lecture (1).

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Presentation on theme: "Composite Materials Ahmed W. Moustafa Lecture (1)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Composite Materials Ahmed W. Moustafa Lecture (1)

2 Composite Material Two inherently different materials that when combined together produce a material with properties that exceed the constituent materials.

3 Composite Material Defined A materials system composed of two or more physically distinct phases whose combination produces aggregate properties that are different from those of its constituents

4 Composite Material Defined Examples: –Cemented carbides (WC with Co binder) –Plastic molding compounds containing fillers –Rubber mixed with carbon black –Wood (a natural composite as distinguished from a synthesized composite)

5 Why Composites are Important Composites can be very strong and stiff, yet very light in weight, so ratios of strength to weight and stiffness to weight are several times greater than steel or aluminum Composites can be very strong and stiff, yet very light in weight, so ratios of strength to weight and stiffness to weight are several times greater than steel or aluminum Fatigue properties are generally better than for common engineering metals Fatigue properties are generally better than for common engineering metals Toughness is often greater too Toughness is often greater too Composites can be designed that do not corrode like steel Composites can be designed that do not corrode like steel Possible to achieve combinations of properties not attainable with metals, ceramics, or polymers alone Possible to achieve combinations of properties not attainable with metals, ceramics, or polymers alone

6 Disadvantages and Limitations Properties of many important composites are anisotropic the properties differ depending on the direction in which they are measured – this may be an advantage or a disadvantage Properties of many important composites are anisotropic the properties differ depending on the direction in which they are measured – this may be an advantage or a disadvantage Many of the polymer based composites are subject to attack by chemicals or solvents, just as the polymers themselves are susceptible to attack Many of the polymer based composites are subject to attack by chemicals or solvents, just as the polymers themselves are susceptible to attack Composite materials are generally expensive Composite materials are generally expensive Manufacturing methods for shaping composite materials are often slow and costly Manufacturing methods for shaping composite materials are often slow and costly

7 Classification of Composite Materials 1. Traditional composites – composite materials that occur in nature or have been produced by civilizations for many years –Examples: wood, concrete, asphalt 2. Synthetic composites - modern material systems normally associated with the manufacturing industries, in which the components are first produced separately and then combined in a controlled way to achieve the desired structure, properties, and part geometry

8 Components in a Composite Material Nearly all composite materials consist of two phases: Nearly all composite materials consist of two phases: 1.Primary phase - forms the matrix within which the secondary phase is imbedded 2.Secondary phase - imbedded phase sometimes referred to as a reinforcing agent, because it usually serves to strengthen the composite The reinforcing phase may be in the form of fibers, particles, or various other geometries The reinforcing phase may be in the form of fibers, particles, or various other geometries

9 Functions of the Matrix Material (Primary Phase) Provides the bulk form of the part or product made of the composite material Provides the bulk form of the part or product made of the composite material Holds the imbedded phase in place, usually enclosing and often concealing it Holds the imbedded phase in place, usually enclosing and often concealing it When a load is applied, the matrix shares the load with the secondary phase, in some cases deforming so that the stress is essentially born by the reinforcing agent When a load is applied, the matrix shares the load with the secondary phase, in some cases deforming so that the stress is essentially born by the reinforcing agent

10 Composites Offer High Strength High Strength Light Weight Light Weight Design Flexibility Design Flexibility Consolidation of Parts Consolidation of Parts Net Shape Manufacturing Net Shape Manufacturing

11 Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Matrix Transfer Load to Reinforcement Temperature Resistance Chemical Resistance Reinforcement Tensile Properties Stiffness Impact Resistance

12 Design Objective Performance: Strength, Temperature, Stiffness Performance: Strength, Temperature, Stiffness Manufacturing Techniques Manufacturing Techniques Life Cycle Considerations Life Cycle Considerations Cost Cost

13 Matrix Considerations End Use Temperature End Use Temperature Toughness Toughness Cosmetic Issues Cosmetic Issues Flame Retardant Flame Retardant Processing Method Processing Method Adhesion Requirements Adhesion Requirements

14 Matrix Types Polyester Polyester Polyesters have good mechanical properties, electrical properties and chemical resistance. Polyesters are amenable to multiple fabrication techniques and are low cost. Vinyl Esters Vinyl Esters are similar to polyester in performance. Vinyl esters have increased resistance to corrosive environments as well as a high degree of moisture resistance.

15 Matrix Types Epoxy Epoxies have improved strength and stiffness properties over polyesters. Epoxies offer excellent corrosion resistance and resistance to solvents and alkalis. Cure cycles are usually longer than polyesters, however no by-products are produced. Flexibility and improved performance is also achieved by the utilization of additives and fillers.

16 Reinforcement Fiber Type Fiberglass Fiberglass Carbon Carbon Aramid Aramid Textile Structure Unidirectional Unidirectional Woven Woven Braid Braid

17 Fiberglass E-glass:Alumina-calcium-borosilicate glass (electrical applications) S-2 glass:Magnesuim aluminosilicate glass (reinforcements) Glass offers good mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties at a relatively low cost. E-glassS-2 glass Density2.56 g/cc2.46 g/cc Tensile Strength390 ksi620 ksi Tensile Modulus10.5 msi13 msi Elongation4.8%5.3%

18 Aramid Kevlar & Twaron Para aramid fiber characterized by high tensile strength and modulus Excellent Impact Resistance Good Temperature Resistance Density1.44 g/cc Tensile Strength400 ksi Tensile Modulus18 Msi Elongation2.5%

19 Carbon Fiber PAN: Fiber made from Polyacrylonitrile precursor fiber High strength and stiffness Large variety of fiber types available Standard ModulusIntermediate Modulus Density1.79 g/cc1.79 g/cc Tensile Strength600 ksi800 ksi Tensile Modulus33 Msi42 Msi Elongation1.8 %1.8 %

20 Weight Considerations Aramid fibers are the lightest Aramid fibers are the lightest g/cc Carbon 1.79 g/c Fiberglass is the heaviest 2.4 g/cc

21 Strength Considerations Carbon is the strongest ksi Fiberglass ksi Aramids 400 ksi

22 Impact Resistance Kevlar is the toughest FiberglassCarbon

23 Stiffness Considerations Carbon is the stiffest msi Aramids 14 msi Fiberglass msi

24 Cost Considerations Fiberglass is cost effective $ /lb. Aramids$20.00/lb Carbon$30.00-$50.00/lb

25 Fabric Structures Woven:Series of Interlaced yarns at 90° to each other Knit:Series of Interlooped Yarns Braided:Series of Intertwined, Spiral Yarns Nonwoven:Oriented fibers either mechanically, chemically, or thermally bonded

26 Woven Fabrics Basic woven fabrics consists of two systems of yarns interlaced at right angles to create a single layer with isotropic or biaxial properties.

27 Physical Properties Construction (ends & picks) Construction (ends & picks) Weight Weight Thickness Thickness Weave Type Weave Type

28 Components of a Woven Fabric

29 Basic Weave Types Plain Weave

30 Basic Weave Types Satin 5HS

31 Basic Weave Types 2 x 2 Twill

32 Basic Weave Types Non-Crimp

33 Braiding A braid consists of two sets of yarns, which are helically intertwined. The resulting structure is oriented to the longitudinal axis of the braid. This structure is imparted with a high level of conformability, relative low cost and ease of manufacture.

34 Braid Structure

35 Types of Braids

36 Triaxial Yarns A system of longitudinal yarns can be introduced which are held in place by the braiding yarns These yarns will add dimensional stability, improve tensile properties, stiffness and compressive strength. Yarns can also be added to the core of the braid to form a solid braid.

37 Conclusions Composite materials offer endless design options. Matrix, Fiber and Preform selections are critical in the design process. Structures can be produced with specific properties to meet end use requirements.


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