Presentation on theme: "Jute Geo-Textiles Road Construction with Jute Geotextiles (JGT) A NATIONAL JUTE BOARD PRESENTATION Presenter-T Sanyal Chief Consultant, National Jute Board."— Presentation transcript:
Jute Geo-Textiles Road Construction with Jute Geotextiles (JGT) A NATIONAL JUTE BOARD PRESENTATION Presenter-T Sanyal Chief Consultant, National Jute Board
Jute Geo-Textiles What are Geotextiles? Geotextiles- more aptly Geosynthetics –belong to the class of Technical Textiles under GEOTECH category. Geotextiles are generically of two varieties—one variety is made of synthetic polymers (petrochemical derivatives) and the other of natural fibres (such as jute, coir) Geotextiles are intended to improve engineering performance of soil on or in which it is laid
Jute Geo-Textiles Jute Geotextiles Jute Geotextiles (JGT)-as the name suggests –is made of bast fibres of jute plants—a renewable agri-resource under cultivation in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta for centuries. Presently under cultivation in other areas/countries as well The British were the first to discover the potential of jute fibre for flexible packaging (sacks) after elaborate tests The features of jute fibre conform to technical requirements of geotextiles, besides its added advantage of being eco- concordant, abundant availability, the back-up R & D support and industry-expertise to make customized JGT Use of JGT helps reduce carbon foot-print in road construction
Jute Geo-Textiles USP OF JUTE High moisture absorbing capacity Excellent drapability (the best of all GTs) High modulus Low extension-at-break High roughness co-efficient Excellent spinnability Bio-degradability with mulching & soil-nourishing properties Annually renewable resource with abundant availability Economical & Eco-concordant
Jute Geo-Textiles JGT - THE FORERUNNER OF MAN-MADE GT Jute fabric was used in road construction long before the concept of geotextiles with man-made fibres emerged Jute hessian was applied successfully on Strand Road at Kolkata as early as in 1934 and in Myanmar during the 2 nd World War First concerted effort to promote use of Jute Geotextiles took off in 1980s with the support of UNDP Extensive R & D on JGT over the years have helped understand the mechanism of its functioning and develop improved varieties for its application in roads & other areas.
Jute Geo-Textiles JGT – Basic Functions JGT matches its man-made counterpart in the three basic functions of a geotextile viz Separation, Filtration, Drainage. Besides, Along-plane drainage capability (i.e. transmissivity) of JGT is higher than its man-made counterpart. Fineness of jute fibre enables manufacture of JGT according to the specified porometric features High Roughness Co-efficient of jute ensures better load transference & confining action on soil JGT has far greater water absorbency than all other GTs –a quality which enables sustained release of the absorbed water, thus creating a congenial micro-climate for better growth of vegetation
Jute Geo-Textiles Role of JGT in Filter-cake formation in soil FILTER CAKE FORMATION IN SOIL IS AN OPTIMAL STATE OF SOIL CONSOLIDATION TRIGGERING GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE STRESS WITHIN A SOIL MASS, THUS ENABLING IT TO BEAR GREATER LOAD.
Jute Geo-Textiles Civil engineering Applications of JGT Strengthening of road by improving CBR Slope management Protection of river bank against erosion Stabilizing embankments Prevention of railway track settlement Consolidation of soft soil Control of surface soil detachment
Jute Geo-Textiles 1. JGT in Road Construction Causes of failure of roads : Inadequate pavement thickness Higher-than-design traffic load & intensity Low bearing capacity of sub grade Intermixing of sub-base and sub grade Insufficient drainage of surface and sub-surface water Leading to “mud pumping” Permeable wearing course Besides the distress /failure of road pavement, stability of a road also depends on the stability of the embankment on which it is built and slope stability the causes of distress/failure of which are different.
Jute Geo-Textiles Design parameters Road pavements are usually designed on the basis of traffic load & its intensity or equivalent single axle load (ESAL), sub-grade CBR and allowable rut-depth There are other design parameters followed in some of the overseas countries. USA, for instance, follows the concept of Structural Number.
Jute Geo-Textiles JGT in Road Construction How can JGT help? Enhances the CBR of the sub-grade by - inducing membrane effect, exerting confining action on sub-grade, preventing soil migration & facilitating water-dissipation along & across its plane (essentially ‘filtration’ function) leading to generation of effective stress within sub-grade - preventing intermixing of sub-grade and sub-base (“separation” function) - facilitating drainage in the sub-surface zone In fact all GTs act as change agents to the soil by concurrent functioning of separation, filtration & drainage at the formative phase
Jute Geo-Textiles Membrane & confining effect of JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles JGT in Road Construction Rough Guidelines for designing a new road with JGT based on field trial results & lab. findings CBR to be taken as 1.5 times the control value of CBR. Woven JGT should be selected in conformity with the average particle size distribution Sub-surface drainage may be facilitated with suitable use of non-woven JGT concurrently. N.B Precise design guidelines are being finalised under an international project on JGT sponsored by the Common Fund for Commodities, a financial institution of the UN.
Jute Geo-Textiles JGT in Road Construction Note : Choice of JGT also depends on the allowable rut depth which is a factor of the level of service expected of a road vis-à-vis the level of its maintenance Porometry range: 150 to 400 microns depending on the average grain size of the sub-grade Tensile strength: 25 kN/m is considered adequate for most of the roads [Recommended by the CFGG Manual (France) for SGT.]
Jute Geo-Textiles JGT in Road Construction Some Salient Findings of studies Percentage elongation at break of JGT is significantly lower than that of synthetic geotextiles (maximum 15% against more than 50 % of SGT) (Ramaswamy & Aziz – 1989) Substantial reduction (more than 50%) in rut depth under dynamic load tests with JGT (Ramaswamy & Aziz – 1989) Loss of strength of JGT after a year is not a deterrent as, by that time, JGT is seen to have helped in providing a self sustaining sub-grade for most type of soils (Ramaswamy & Aziz – 1989) The gain in strength of the sub-grade with time is compensated against the loss of strength of JGT within the same time frame (ibid & JU 2005)
Effect of Jute Fabric on Compaction Characteristics of Subgrade Soil
Jute Geo-Textiles Studies by Ramaswamy & Aziz (1989) on Clayey Subgrade Table - I c) Strain at failure (%) i) without JGT ii) with JGT b) Undefined Compressive Strength (kN/m 2 ) i) without JGT ii) with JGT a) Water Content (%) b) CBR (%) i) without JGT ii) with JGT a) Water Content (%) Table - II
Jute Geo-Textiles 2. Slope Management with JGT Roads built on high embankments require preventive measures to control erosion of slope surface. Slopes erode due to: Detachment of top soil by K E of rain drops Flow of rain water (surface run-off) Severe wind Surficial soil erosion can be controlled by reducing the velocity of surface run-off & entrapping detached soil particles. Wind-induced soil erosion can be controlled by suitable JGT- cover
Jute Geo-Textiles 2. Slope Management with JGT Remedial Concept Universal Hydrological Equation in its simplest form states precipitation surface flow + through flow ( sub-surface flow ) + storage If through-flow and on-land storage can be increased, surface run-off gets reduced Through-flow depends on hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Storage can be facilitated by creating micro-barriers on the slope. Such micro-barriers also curb the velocity of surface flow JGT is the ideal material that fulfills the requirements, besides facilitating fast growth of vegetation on its bio- degradation as a result of its mulching properties and by increasing the hydraulic conductivity of soil
Jute Geo-Textiles Soil Erosion Process on a Slope RAIN XCXC belt of no erosion FLOW active erosion deposition of sediments D a d b b’ e c’ c material in suspension overland flow
Jute Geo-Textiles Dam Storage L Storage ) β Weft of open mesh JGT Storage D 2.87 litres / sq.m. of water on a 1:2 slope can be impounded when an open weave JGT having 45 wefts in a metre, and dia of 4mm in weft with an overall weight of 500 gsm. JGT is laid
Jute Geo-Textiles Installation of JGT on slope Direction of laying Jute Geotextile Fixing nail Graded slope Grass plant Toe anchor (150 mm x 150mm) 150 Shoulder anchor (150 mm x 150mm) 150 mm 50 mm Fixing nail (II Gauge wire) +
Jute Geo-Textiles 3. Stability of Embankments Embankment is an essential component of a road. Almost all roads are built on embankments. Expansive or compressive soils used as fills in embankments may lead to: Vertical settlement Lateral dispersion Downslope migration Rotational slides (slip circle failure)
Jute Geo-Textiles Stability of Embankments JGT absorbs stress and strain induced due to moving loads on embankments high soil - JGT interfacial friction acts as a good medium of transference of the induced stress and strain can directly reinforce the soil mass in an embankment during its useful lifespan Soil is otherwise stabilized due to separation, filtration and drainage effects acting concurrently
Jute Geo-Textiles Basal Reinforcement with JGT for any new embankment is effective JGT can also be used in successive layers of an embankment and may be folded at the fringes asside restraint for protection against rotational slide In new embankments woven JGT may be used as basal reinforcement to avert settlement PRECAUTION Prevent ingress of water into an embankment Drain out entrapped water from an embankment for which installation of JGT- encapsulated concealed drains and, in more severe cases, prefabricated vertical jute drains (PVJD) deserves consideration.
Jute Geo-Textiles Durability of JGT As already indicated Loss of strength of JGT after a year is NOT a deterrent – for, by that time, JGT provides a self-sustaining sub-grade for most soils The gain in strength of the sub-grade compensates the loss of strength of JGT within the same time frame With the passage of time dependence on JGT for soil stability continues to decrease However there is need to ensure JGT-durability ranging from 2 to 4 years (depending on the application-type) by special treatment. Eco-friendly durability treatments have been developed by IIT, KgP & IJIRA
Jute Geo-Textiles Is Bio-degradability of JGT a Technical Disadvantage? The answer is NO. Optimal consolidation (development of effective stress) is seen to take place within the effective life of JGT N.B. Effective life of JGT may be enhanced by specially developed eco-friendly water-repellent treatment (developed by IIT Kgp & IJIRA Necessity of JGT or, for that matter, of any GT ceases after filter-cake formation. Bio-degradability of JGT is thus not a technical disadvantage. Additionally JGT lends environmental advantage to road construction
Jute Geo-Textiles ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Jute fibres are eco-friendly, soil-friendly, biodegradable, annually renewable resource Following points are relevant in context of eco- concordance and socio-economic value of jute a)During 100 days of jute growing period, 1 hectare of jute plant can absorb about 15 MT of CO 2 from atmosphere and liberate about 11 MT of O 2. Studies reveal that CO 2 assimilation rate of jute is higher than trees (Inagaki, 2000; IJSG 2003). In fact jute helps in carbon sequestration.
Jute Geo-Textiles (contd.) Main use of jute sticks (a retting output) is as fuel and household uses. Yield of jute sticks is 2.5times the fibre by weight. Jute sticks annually saves 5.06 million tons of forest wood(in India and Bangladesh) and help in preserving ecological balance. Leaves left in the field are good manures and increase fertility of land. Increases hydraulic conductivity of soil
Jute Geo-Textiles Field Experience with JGT Experience in India & elsewhere with JGT in geotechnical engineering applications numbering more than 150 in India alone corroborates its effectiveness in road construction and erosion control of diverse nature In road construction enhancement of CBR value is minim 1.5 times and in some cases the increase has been even 3-5 times after 4 years! Soil continues to consolidate even after bio-degradation of JGT. In fact JGT triggers the process of consolidation thru’ development of effective stress. The process continues for a protracted period.
Jute Geo-Textiles Some salient properties of woven JGT JGT has a high initial tangent modulus (comparable JGT offers a greater interfacial friction than SGT JGT has greater transmissivity than SGT Permittivity of JGT is comparable to that of SGT SOME PROPERTIES OF WOVEN JGTVALUE Tensile Strength15 to 40 kN/m Elongation-at-break8% to 12% Puncture resistance400 to 600 N Burst strength3000 to 4000 kPa Permittivity with 50 mm water head≈350 x per sec Transmissivity -on 724 gsm (25 kN/m) at 11.2 kPa -on 627 gsm (20 kN/m) at 11.2 kPa 4.37 x m 3 /m-s 3.64 x m 3 /m-s AOS (O 95 )100 µ upwards
Jute Geo-Textiles Economical Easily available Can be tailor made to meet the criteria of retention and permeability. Precise control on quality and workmanship possible. Quicker execution time. Better drapability than any other geo-textile. Provides a sustainable and eco-compatible solution. Conducive natural protection against erosion through quick growth of vegetation cover. Advantages Of JGT – in summary
Jute Geo-Textiles Newly developed products Several new products have been developed recently based on Jute for highway applications JGT in asphaltic overlay for prevention of reflection cracks. (developed by IIT Delhi)—not tried Paving fabric for wearing course as alternative to mastic asphalt (developed by IJT & CRRI (under the JTM sponsored by MoT with NJB as the collaborating/facilitating organization) -under field trial Development of durable & water-repellent JGT (recently developed by IIT, KgP under the JTM) -under field trial ‘Jutecrete’-Jute-fibre reinforced concrete (developed by IIT, KgP) under the JTM sponsored project by MoT with NJB as the collaborating/facilitating organization) -under field trial Pre-fabricated vertical jute drain (PVJD) developed by IIT Delhi & Singapore Sate University (Prof R D Ramaswamy)-already tried
Jute Geo-Textiles Standards/Normative References IS 14986:2001— -Guidelines for application of Jute Geo-textiles for rain water erosion control in road & railway embankment and hill slope -2 BIS guidelines on rural road constn & river bank protection with JGT have recently been approved- under print RDSO, Ministry of Railways & Rly Board– - Specs for Open weave JGT in slope protection -Guideline no GE:G1 (July 2003)— -Guidelines for earthwork in railway projects -Included as an item in the unified SoR of Railways 2011 Indian Roads Congress— - State-of-the-art report on use of jute Geotextiles in Road Constn & Prevention of Soil Erosion/Landslides (2012) -Specifications for road & bridge works (2001) & -Recommended practice for treatment of embankment slope & erosion control (1991) I & W Deptt & PW(Roads) of GoWB have included JGT items in their SoRs
Jute Geo-Textiles Case Studies in road & slope erosion control Illustrative Case Studies
Jute Geo-Textiles Some Case Studies in Road with JGT 1.Re-construction of damaged highway on soft marine soil using JGT at Kakinada Port – Andhra Pradesh 2.Strengthening of UT Road - Jorabari with JGT(Assam) 3.Strengthening of Chatumary - MDR14 road with JGT (Odisha) 4.Widening and strengthening of Munshirhat – Rajpur Road with JGT (West Bengal). 5.Strengthening of Andulia – Boyratola Road with JGT (West Bengal)
Jute Geo-Textiles Re-construction of damaged highway on soft marine soil using JGT at Kakinada Port – Andhra Pradesh
Jute Geo-Textiles LOCATION :Kakinada Port Area, Andhra Pradesh SITE CONDITION: The subsoil is soft clay up to 4m depth and water table is about 0.5m below G.L. SOLUTION: Woven JGT was used to re-build & strengthen the damaged carriageway on the existing soft soil CLIENT NAME: CRRI and Kakinada Municipality YEAR OF APPLICATION: 1996 Leveling of the damaged road with earth Condition of Damaged Road
Jute Geo-Textiles PAVEMENT COMPOSITION JGT on prepared sub-grade overlain by compacted sand of 1.2 m as sub- base & 10 cm thick compacted gravel as base. 1m deep side drains on either side PROPERTIES OF SUBGRADE SOIL: Plasticity Index: 32 Soil type: CH PROPERTIES OF JUTE GEOTEXTILE USED: Weight : 760 gsm Tensile Strength : 20 kN/m Pore Size (O 90 ) : 300 micron Type of JGT : Woven (Rot-proof) Finished road after 7 years of construction Laying of JGT over sand
Jute Geo-Textiles CBR VALUES OF SUB-GRADE SOIL BEFORE AND AFTER LAYING OF JGT Natural soil (before laying JGT) CBR % Improved soil (after laying JGT)* CBR % Un-soaked specimen Soaked specimen Un-soaked specimen Soaked specimen * Test was performed after 30 months of laying JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles FINDING: Jute Geotextile helped increase of CBR% in weak marine soil even after reduction in the strength of JGT after a lapse of 7 years as reflected from the performance and increase in CBR.
Jute Geo-Textiles Strengthening of UT Road - Jorabari (Assam) with JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles LOCATION : The road (UT Road to Jorabari) is located at Udalguri in Darrang district, Assam SITE CONDITIONS: This was an earthen road under PMGSY Pilot project. Flash flooding of the area occurs occasionally. Deep ruts had formed at some locations. Average annual rainfall is 1600 – 1700 mm. The water table is 3 to 4 m below G.L during summer and 1.5 to 2 m during monsoon. SOLUTION: Jute Geotextile was used on sub-grade to strengthen the road. ROAD LENGTH: 4.6 Km Before construction Pavement composition Woven JGT sandwiched bet. sand layers (100) & overlain by GSB (100), gravel (100) & WBM Gr III (75) with bituminous overlay
Jute Geo-Textiles CLIENT NAME: Chief Engineer PWD, Rural Road Works, Assam YEAR OF APPLICATION: 2007 PROPERTIES OF SUBGRADE SOIL: Liquid Limit: 24% Plastic Limit: Non-plastic CBR of soaked specimen: 4% Soil type: ML PROPERTIES OF JGT USED: Weight : 643/760/810 gsm Tensile Strength : 15/20/30 kN/m Pore Size (O 90 ) : 150 – 200 micron Type of JGT : Woven (Rot-proof) Finished Road Laying of Jute Geo-textile
Jute Geo-Textiles Natural soil (before laying JGT) CBR % Improved soil (after laying JGT)* CBR % Soaked specimen * after 3 years CBR VALUES OF SUB-GRADE SOIL BEFORE AND AFTER LAYING OF JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles FINDING: The CBR values increased by more than 3.5 times with decrease in moisture content. The blacktop pavement surface was distress-free in all the sub-sections during the entire period of performance monitoring Shoulders as well as side slope was in shape without any rain-cut or settlement with green grass over it.
Jute Geo-Textiles Strengthening of Chatumary – MDR-14 road, Odisha with JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles LOCATION : The road (Chatumari to MDR 14) is located under Tehsil – Bari in Jajpur district, Odisha. SITE CONDITIONS: This was an earthen road under PMGSY Pilot project. Deep ruts had formed at some locations. Average annual rainfall is 1400 mm. The water table is at a depth of 1.5 to 3 m. SOLUTION: Jute Geotextile was used on sub-grade to add to stability of the road. ROAD LENGTH: 2.67 Km Before construction Pavement composition Woven JGT sandwiched bet. sand layers (100) & overlain by GSB (100), gravel (100) & WBM Gr III (75) with bituminous overlay
Jute Geo-Textiles CLIENT NAME: Chief Engineer PWD, Rural Works – II Orissa YEAR OF APPLICATION: 2007 PROPERTIES OF SUBGRADE SOIL: Liquid Limit: 27% Plastic Limit: Non-plastic CBR of Soaked specimen: 3% Soil type: ML PROPERTIES OF JGT USED: Weight : 643/760/810 gsm Tensile Strength : 15/20/30 kN/m Pore Size (O 90 ) : 150 – 200 micron Type of JGT : Woven (Rot-proof) Finished Road Laying of Jute Geo-textile
Jute Geo-Textiles Natural soil (before laying JGT) CBR % Improved soil (after laying JGT)* CBR % Soaked specimen * after 2 years CBR VALUES OF SUB-GRADE SOIL BEFORE AND AFTER LAYING OF JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles FINDING: The CBR values increased more than 3 times with decrease in moisture content. The blacktop pavement surface was distress-free in all the sub-sections during the entire period of performance monitoring Shoulders as well as side slope condition was satisfactory with a green cover of grass
Jute Geo-Textiles Widening and strengthening of Munshirhat – Rajpur Road (West Bengal) with JGT.
Jute Geo-Textiles LOCATION : Munshirhat to Penro Khila Rajpur Road, Howrah, West Bengal. SITE CONDITIONS: It is a rural road which was to be widened to carry the increased traffic. SOLUTION : Jute Geotextile was laid on the extended portion ROAD LENGTH: 2 Km CLIENT: Howrah Highway Division, PW (Roads) Deptt., Government of West Bengal YEAR OF APPLICATION: 2000 JGT laid over sub-grade Brick metal laid over JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles PROPERTIES OF SUBGRADE SOIL: O.M.C : 19% Plasticity Index : 19% CBR of Soaked specimen : 3.5% Soil type : OL PROPERTIES OF JGT USED: Weight : 760 gsm Tensile Strength : 20 kN/m Pore Size (O 90 ) : 300 micron Type of JGT : Woven (Rot-proof) Finished Road Pavement composition Woven JGT was placed on the sub-grade of the widened portion overlain by 2 layers of brick soling as sub-base and WBM (150) as base layer with bituminous top (20 cm PMC).
Jute Geo-Textiles Natural soil (before laying JGT) CBR % Improved soil (after laying JGT)* CBR % Soaked specimen * after 1 year CBR VALUES OF SUB-GRADE SOIL BEFORE AND AFTER LAYING OF JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles FINDING: The sub-grade was strengthened by application of JGT attaining CBR value of 6% from initial 3.5% with decrease in liquid and plastic limits. No distress of the road was noticed after several years despite increase in projected traffic load.
Jute Geo-Textiles Strengthening of Andulia – Boyratola Road, West Bengal with JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles LOCATION : Andulia (Kalupukur More) to Boyratala in Haroa Block, District North 24- Paraganas, West Bengal. SITE CONDITIONS: Rural road under PMGSY on soft sub- grade resulting in reduction of effective pavement thickness due to interpenetration of sub-base and sub- grade. SOLUTION: Jute Geo-textile was used on the sub- grade and under the sub-base basically as a separator. ROAD LENGTH: 3.3 Km Pavement composition Woven JGT overlain by GSB (200)) & WBM II& III (150) with bituminous overlay (PMC)
Jute Geo-Textiles CLIENT NAME: North 24-Paraganas Zilla Parishad, West Bengal YEAR OF APPLICATION: 2005 PROPERTIES OF SUBGRADE SOIL: Optimum Moisture Content: 23.5% Plasticity Index: Soaked CBR at 2.5mm penetration: 3.22% Soaked CBR at 5.0mm penetration: 3.16% Soil type : OL PROPERTIES OF JGT USED: Weight : 810 gsm Tensile Strength : 30 kN/m Pore Size (O 90 ) : 150micron Type of JGT : Woven JGT Finished Road
Jute Geo-Textiles CBR VALUES OF SUB-GRADE SOIL BEFORE AND AFTER LAYING OF JGT Natural soil (before laying JGT) CBR % Improved soil (after laying JGT)* CBR % Soaked specimenUn-soaked specimen * Test was performed after 18 months of laying JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles FINDING: The study substantiates the proven concept that limited durability of JGT is not a technical deterrent as soil gets consolidated due to separation, filtration and drainage functioning concurrently with the help of JGT within a year or so. CBR value got enhanced to more than 3 times despite loss in strength of JGT in the instant case.
Jute Geo-Textiles Some Photographs showing application of JGT for Stabilization of Slope of Road Embankme nt
Jute Geo-Textiles NH-2, ALLAHABAD BYPASS, U.P.
Jute Geo-Textiles NH-3, GUNA BYPASS, M.P.
Jute Geo-Textiles BRIDGE APPROACH ON R. MUNDESHWARI, W.B.
Jute Geo-Textiles SLOPE COVERED WITH VEGETATION LAYING OF JUTE GEOTEXTILE AFTER DRESSING OF SLOPE HILL SLOPEGUWAHATI-SHILLONG ROAD AT SONAPUR
Jute Geo-Textiles NH 55—PAGLAJHORA IN NORTH OF W.B
Jute Geo-Textiles Typical cross-section of a low volume road with JGT
Jute Geo-Textiles Findings of the case studies Water content, void ratio and compression index decreased while dry density and CBR value of the sub-grade soil increased by use of Jute Geotextile. JGT appeared to be very effective even in weak sub- grade in reducing their compressibility and increasing their strength as reflected from the good performance even after a lapse of 10 years. JGT is the most effective among geotextiles for surficial soil erosion control
Jute Geo-Textiles MISSIVE JGT is an effective technical facilitator in building stronger and more durable roads with the added advantage of lending eco-concordance by reducing carbon footbprint & ensuring overall economy. Jute plays a significant role in national economy as a major FE earner & one of the largest employers of work-force in India JGT JUSTIFIABLY DESERVES MORE PATRONAGE