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SYM033 Raffles Girls' School (Secondary), Singapore Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy.

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Presentation on theme: "SYM033 Raffles Girls' School (Secondary), Singapore Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy."— Presentation transcript:

1 SYM033 Raffles Girls' School (Secondary), Singapore Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

2  SYM033a : Informing the practice on the school-wide implementation of the Performance Task as an alternative assessment. By Mary George CHERIYAN  SYM033b : Teacher perception and attitudes towards the design and implementation of the Performance Task as an alternative assessment. By Puay Lan CHUA, Lucille  SYM033c : Student motivation and achievement in the Performance Task. By Christopher SLATTER Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

3 3 The journey so far? Thinking Schools Learning Nation (1997) I & E Teach Less Learn More (2004) Teacher Quality of Interaction Learner

4 Goals/ Outcomes AssessmentPedagogy Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

5 2003 1997 2004 2010 C21 st Skills Higher order thinking Information communication National Education Project work GCE A level School-based Science Practical Assessment Holistic Assessment Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

6 Aims of exploring new ways to assess  Empower students to thinking more deeply about the Math they are learning  Provide teachers with information to revise and redirect their teaching Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

7 Where are we? Class Tests Semestral Exams Project work Homework Other Assessment Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

8 Problem solving tasks Investigation Projects Journals Conferences Portfolios Oral presentations Class discussions Observation Peer-directed Self-directed Teacher-directed Can it be done? Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

9 World TRENDS in Assessment Progress Knowledge & Skills Feedback Solutions Multiple Sources Sole Reliance On answers External Agencies Self assessment Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

10 Involving the partnership of both teacher and students In making judgment about the student’s progress Using non-conventional strategies Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy On-going process

11 Problem solving tasks Investigation Projects Journals Oral presentations Interviews Portfolios Class discussions Observations Checklists Peer assessment Self assessment Student-generated items Student-generated items Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

12 Technological Measurement Knowledge Skills Cultural Interpretation Integration Political Power Authority Competing interests Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

13  SYM033a : Informing the practice on the school-wide implementation of the Performance Task as an alternative assessment. By Mary George CHERIYAN  SYM033b : Teacher perception and attitudes towards the design and implementation of the Performance Task as an alternative assessment. By Puay Lan CHUA, Lucille  SYM033c : Student motivation and achievement in the Performance Task. By Christopher SLATTER Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

14 Presented at the Redesigning Pedagogy Conference, June 2011 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

15  Culture of informed practice: Teachers integrate their experience, judgement and knowledge with current, relevant and reliable research.  Reflective Practice: habit of inquiring and investigating a problem situation in order to understand how to frame a solution (Schon, 1983,87) Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

16 This way of thinking is likely to instill in teachers the following attributes:  Open-mindedness (Dewey, 1933)  Sense of responsibility  Motivation (Loughran, 2002) Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

17  The divide between academic and teacher research  Legitimacy of the knowledge production by school-based inquiries  The teachers’ voice (Zeichner, 1995) Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Key ideas

18 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

19 Performance tasks are based on real world situations in which the student creates products and/or performances that demonstrate her key understandings of the big ideas in the topic. Students apply higher order thinking to synthesize their knowledge of content and acquisition of skills to offer solutions and perspectives on the given issue. They may do so through divergent products that are appropriate to the context and their learning styles. The rubric lists the criteria that describe the standards by which their product/performance is assessed. Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

20 1.Multiple measures of learning (Eisner, 1999), Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) 2.Demonstration of critical thinking ( Howell, Brocato, Paterson, Bridges, 1999; Foo and Fan, 2007) 3.Requires content mastery & conceptual understanding (MacLellan, 2004) Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

21  Alignment to the Integrated Curriculum Model (Baska, 1987)  The RGS Assessment Framework Time-based Assessments Applied understandings -Performance Tasks Applied understandings -Performance Tasks Growth over time -Journal and Portfolios Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

22 1. Reliability and validity of school-constructed performance tasks: Focus on Secondary maths 2. What are teachers’ beliefs, attitudes, self- efficacy and their pedagogical practices in designing and implementing the performance task? How are they related with one another? 3. What are students’ motivation and their achievement in the performance task? How are they related with one another? Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

23 Teacher perception and attitudes towards the design and implementation of the Performance Task Performance Task as an alternative assessment a CRPP-RGS PeRL Research Project (a CRPP-RGS PeRL Research Project) SYM033b

24 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy What do you understand by the term, ‘Performance Task’? How accurate (valid and reliable) are performance tasks, compared to other forms of assessments, in gauging students’ understanding of a topic? Do you vary your pedagogy according to the type of assessments planned, pen and paper assessment (PPA) or performance task (PT)? Was this new assessment initiative been clearly communicated to you? Is it a practical move?

25 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy How competent are you in designing a performance task? How can your competency be further developed? Which, PPA or PT, provides students with more opportunities to demonstrate their critical thinking and/or creative thinking? What are the challenges that you faced in the design of performance task? How did you overcome your challenges ? What form of mentoring do you provide your students with as they embark on their performance tasks?

26 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Understanding of Performance Task PT design meetings – collaborative work Inferences made about structure Learn by doing…. look at past PTs, modify, adapt or create (5) Dialogues on the multi-layered concept among teachers (3) Workshops: Induction workshop(2) or PeRL PT workshop(2) Draw parallels - similar to authentic transfer task in Understanding by Design (UbD) workbook Communication of Performance Task Encourage creativity - create product (2) Extend student learning beyond the classroom Demonstrate understanding (3) Involve critical thinking skills Challenging Project work (PW) or alternative assessment (AA) Audience (3) Role Authenticity (9) - transfer or application of learning

27 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Practicality of Performance Task as an Alternative Assessment Feasible Individualism (2) Meaningful and engaging Process of discovering and uncovering (3) Assessment beyond the classroom; PPA and textbooks would not be seen as a ‘be-all’ and ‘end-all’ in learning Authentic scenarios (2) Challenging Raffles Programme (RP) curriculum “Assessment chore” Asia Pacific study on International Baccalaureate (IB) – intensive drilling carried out in Years 5 and 6 Recognition and acceptance of PT by overseas universities

28 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Accuracy of Performance Task in Gauging Understanding Pedagogical Approaches and Assessment Modes Fairness - assess different abilities and skills (3) Use of assessment rubrics Benchmarking Transfer or application of learning (3) Alignment to learner’s outcomes Validation: internal and external Built-in PT Prep (3) Show relevant examples or tasks PPA - chalk and board talk on the answer structure (2), PT - idea exploration and standards (in rubrics) Understanding by Design (UbD) framework - alignment of assessment and pedagogy to learner’s outcomes Status quo

29 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Mentoring of Students in PT Level of mentoring depends on class character Similar form of guidance Set benchmarks Audio-visual Aids and digital resources Task outline Coaching @ two levels – task requirement and level of development Multi-dimensional exploration of task Creativity in product design (4) Measurement of creative thinking is a challenge Regulate scale of product (2) Higher order thinking skills like evaluation and decision-making(4) Evidence of deep critical thinking – looking at perspectives Variations in approach to task No model answer Demonstration of Critical Thinking and/or Creative Thinking

30 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Level of Competency in PT design and Competency Development “Good at, but not an expert on” Begin with the end in mind – key understandings and nature of product Learn on the job or learn by doing (5) Open-mindedness and receptive – continuous learning (3) Collaboration (2) Professional dialogues and sharing (3) PT Guidelines Challenges in PT design and Overcoming the Challenges Learner’s outcomes – dimensions of learning Nature of product Assessment rubrics (3) – wording and standards Key understanding Bench-marking and objective grading

31 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy High level of awareness on the existence of a STRUCTURE for PT design - GRASPS G real world GOAL R real world ROLE A real world AUDIENCE S real world SITUATION P real world PRODUCTS or PERFORMANCE S Standards Criteria to judge product or performance Unevenness in the articulation of the meaning of PT Organisational communication of the rationale and objectives of PT is somewhat overlooked as teachers have uncovered and understood the idea of PT through self-discovery, collaborative work, professional discourse and workshops

32 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Generally very supportive of the idea of PT as an alternative assessment as it i.caters to individuality ii.supports the challenging Raffles Programme (RP) curriculum iii.equips students with the 21 st century competencies PTs have been viewed as an ‘assessment chore’ Low level of acceptance of PTs as an indicator of academic achievement by overseas universities PTs do provide a valid measure of the intended student’s outcomes. However the element of reliability is difficult to determine as the nature and form of PTs change on a yearly basis.

33 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Slight to moderate variations in teaching pedagogy; it’s task dependent as well as subject dependent. Teacher-involvement in the student learning process; some forms of teacher guidance, coaching and facilitation are provided. Clear thought processes reflected in the design of PT - begin with the end in mind, and - mindful of a STRUCURE Encourage critical thinking (higher-order thinking skills) and creative thinking (ideas and products).

34 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy 1 The teachers are very positive about the use of PTs as an alternative mode of assessment. They recognise and acknowledge the value of PTs, especially in equipping the students with the 21 st century competency. 1T Key challenge – crafting of assessment rubrics

35 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy 2. Provide i. PT training workshop, conducted either by Alberta Assessment Consortium (AAC) or RGS PeRL, for teachers so that there is a common understanding among the teachers, and ii. greater infrastructure support e.g. provide a rubric construction kit that comprises a rubric checklist and a list of rubric vocabulary. 1. Communicate with clarity, concreteness and completeness to the teachers the idea of PT as effective communication is a necessity to successfully promote a shared vision. 3. Encourage the development of a Professional Learning Community, where dyadic communication, sharing and support prevails, for PT design.

36 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy 4. End-of-year departmental review of PTs to i.fine-tune and improve the quality of existing PTs. (Students’ inputs can be sought.) ii.ensure the validity and reliability of PT as an assessment tool by using a set of PT assessment rubrics. 5. Validate PT as an alternative assessment so that overseas universities would recognise and accept the validity and reliability of PT as a measure of student achievement in RGS in their admission exercise.

37 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy The Students’ Voice Student Motivation and Achievement in the Performance Task SYM033c Chris Slatter

38 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Introduction

39 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary)

40 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy The Ministry of Education recognized that nearly all students from the top schools in Singapore progressed to university. A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary)

41 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy The Ministry of Education recognized that nearly all students from the top schools in Singapore progressed to university. It was rationalized that these high ability students should not be required to sit O' Level examinations, but should be offered an enriched secondary school curriculum. A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary)

42 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy The Ministry of Education recognized that nearly all students from the top schools in Singapore progressed to university. It was rationalized that these high ability students should not be required to sit O' Level examinations, but should be offered an enriched secondary school curriculum. This is the origin of the Raffles Programme. A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary)

43 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary)

44 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Best practices in gifted education recommend that the teaching and assessment of high ability students should be aligned with their learning style as well as their interests. A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary)

45 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Best practices in gifted education recommend that the teaching and assessment of high ability students should be aligned with their learning style as well as their interests. This means using a range of pedagogies to teach the students both inside and outside of the classroom, but what about assessments? A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary)

46 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Best practices in gifted education recommend that the teaching and assessment of high ability students should be aligned with their learning style as well as their interests. This means using a range of pedagogies to teach the students both inside and outside of the classroom, but what about assessments? Performance tasks give students some degree of autonomy through choice of topics and allow students to present evidence of their understanding in a variety of different ways. A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary)

47 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy The structure of a performance task... R - real world Role A - real world Audience S - real world Situation P - real world Products and Performance S - Standards criteria to judge product and performance G - real world Goal A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary)

48 Compare and Contrast... 1) Alternative Assessment. 2) Authentic Transfer Task. 3) Performance Task.

49 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Conducting Research into Performance Tasks: The Students’ Voice

50 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Conceptual Framework

51 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Conceptual Framework

52 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Conceptual Framework

53 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy What Does the Literature Have to Say About Performance Tasks?

54 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy What Does the Literature Have to Say About Performance Tasks?

55 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Performance tasks tend to be used as an instrument to identify minority gifted / underrepresented gifted populations. What Does the Literature Have to Say About Performance Tasks?

56 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Performance tasks tend to be used as an instrument to identify minority gifted / underrepresented gifted populations. Performance tasks tend to be used as a formative assessment (assessment for learning). What Does the Literature Have to Say About Performance Tasks?

57 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Performance tasks tend to be used as an instrument to identify minority gifted / underrepresented gifted populations. Performance tasks tend to be used as a formative assessment (assessment for learning). There is little evidence that performance tasks are used as summative assessments (assessment of learning). What Does the Literature Have to Say About Performance Tasks?

58 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Hypothesis Performance tasks enable teachers and students to achieve learning goals that are less accessible by traditional assessments.

59 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Research Question How effective are performance tasks as an alternative form of assessment?

60 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Methodology

61 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Methodology

62 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Focus group interviews conducted with students (purposeful stratified sample - Year 1 to Year 4 Class Chairpersons, n = 40). Methodology

63 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Focus group interviews conducted with students (purposeful stratified sample - Year 1 to Year 4 Class Chairpersons, n = 40). Interviews are coded, and qualitative data is extracted. Methodology

64 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Focus group interviews conducted with students (purposeful stratified sample - Year 1 to Year 4 Class Chairpersons, n = 40). Interviews are coded, and qualitative data is extracted. Qualitative data is used to design a survey for the collection of quantitative data from all students. Methodology

65 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Focus group interviews conducted with students (purposeful stratified sample - Year 1 to Year 4 Class Chairpersons, n = 40).  Interviews are coded, and qualitative data is extracted.  Qualitative data is used to design a survey for the collection of quantitative data from all students. Methodology

66 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Methodology

67 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say?

68 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Seeing examples of good and bad products would be useful.

69 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Seeing examples of good and bad products would be useful. Setting students deadlines for certain key stages of the performance task would be useful for Year 1 students. The deadlines can be phased out as the students progress through to Year 4.

70 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Seeing examples of good and bad products would be useful. Setting students deadlines for certain key stages of the performance task would be useful for Year 1 students. The deadlines can be phased out as the students progress through to Year 4. The overall percentage that the performance task is worth should reflect the amount of work that is required to complete it.

71 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Seeing examples of good and bad products would be useful. Setting students deadlines for certain key stages of the performance task would be useful for Year 1 students. The deadlines can be phased out as the students progress through to Year 4. The overall percentage that the performance task is worth should reflect the amount of work that is required to complete it. Deadlines for performance tasks overlap.

72 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say?

73 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy There is the danger that students just "copy and paste" information into their performance tasks without critically evaluating the data. Results - What Did the Students Say?

74 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy There is the danger that students just "copy and paste" information into their performance tasks without critically evaluating the data. There should be peer evaluation of each student's work. Results - What Did the Students Say?

75 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy There is the danger that students just "copy and paste" information into their performance tasks without critically evaluating the data. There should be peer evaluation of each student's work. How to deal with students who do not do their fair share of the group component of the performance task? Results - What Did the Students Say?

76 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy There is the danger that students just "copy and paste" information into their performance tasks without critically evaluating the data. There should be peer evaluation of each student's work. How to deal with students who do not do their fair share of the group component of the performance task? It is unfair to assess students on skills that they are unfamiliar with, for example, video editing. This also gives girls who have a video camera at home an unfair advantage. Results - What Did the Students Say?

77 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say?

78 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy The aesthetic qualities of a performance task should not be assessed. Results - What Did the Students Say?

79 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy The aesthetic qualities of a performance task should not be assessed. The performance task should only cover topics that have been studied in class. Results - What Did the Students Say?

80 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy The aesthetic qualities of a performance task should not be assessed. The performance task should only cover topics that have been studied in class. Girls argue that it is unfair to give them scenarios that they are completely unfamiliar with, but this is required to some extent in order to make the performance task authentic. Results - What Did the Students Say?

81 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say?

82 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Some performance tasks are valuable because they are aligned with the curriculum. The performance task is a natural progression of the topic being taught. Other performance tasks are very artificial. They are "done because they need to be done" and for no other apparent reason. Results - What Did the Students Say?

83 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Some performance tasks are valuable because they are aligned with the curriculum. The performance task is a natural progression of the topic being taught. Other performance tasks are very artificial. They are "done because they need to be done" and for no other apparent reason. Rubrics can be quite subjective. It would be better if they were more detailed. Results - What Did the Students Say?

84 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Students should be randomly grouped for each performance task by their teacher. Some performance tasks are valuable because they are aligned with the curriculum. The performance task is a natural progression of the topic being taught. Other performance tasks are very artificial. They are "done because they need to be done" and for no other apparent reason. Rubrics can be quite subjective. It would be better if they were more detailed. Results - What Did the Students Say?

85 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say?

86 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks are a more interesting form of assessment as compared to pen-and-paper assessments.

87 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks are a more interesting form of assessment as compared to pen-and-paper assessments. Performance tasks give students who are not good at pen-and-paper assessments an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding.

88 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks are a more interesting form of assessment as compared to pen-and-paper assessments. Performance tasks give students who are not good at pen-and-paper assessments an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding. Performance tasks give students the opportunity to be creative in terms of the process and the product.

89 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks are a more interesting form of assessment as compared to pen-and-paper assessments. Performance tasks give students who are not good at pen-and-paper assessments an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding. Performance tasks give students the opportunity to be creative in terms of the process and the product. Performance tasks allow students to “play to their strengths” in terms of the process and product.

90 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say?

91 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks allow students to find solutions to authentic problems.

92 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks allow students to find solutions to authentic problems. Performance tasks are interesting because they are framed in a real world scenario.

93 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks allow students to find solutions to authentic problems. Performance tasks are interesting because they are framed in a real world scenario. Performance tasks give students the opportunity to work in groups. Preparation for the work place?

94 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks allow students to find solutions to authentic problems. Performance tasks are interesting because they are framed in a real world scenario. Performance tasks give students the opportunity to work in groups. Preparation for the work place? Some teachers go through the rubrics, clarifying, elaborating and explaining.

95 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say?

96 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Results - What Did the Students Say? Students study a topic in more detail when they are assessed by performance task. They read more deeply into the subject.

97 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Conclusions

98 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Conclusions Limitations of the performance task appear to be grounded in the technical details of its implementation. For example, deadlines, duration and mark allocation.

99 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Conclusions Limitations of the performance task appear to be grounded in the technical details of its implementation. For example, deadlines, duration and mark allocation. Some issues centred around pedagogy were raised. For example, some – but not all – teachers will discuss the grading rubric with their students. This needs to be addressed at a schoolwide level.

100 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Conclusions Limitations of the performance task appear to be grounded in the technical details of its implementation. For example, deadlines, duration and mark allocation. Some issues centred around pedagogy were raised. For example, some – but not all – teachers will discuss the grading rubric with their students. This needs to be addressed at a schoolwide level. In general, the students recognise the importance of performance tasks and are able to verbalise this. Their feedback is in general agreement with the pedagogical objectives of performance tasks as stated in the literature.

101 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Recognised Limitations

102 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Recognised Limitations Small sample size. The 40 students who participated in the focus group interviews are only a small percentage of the entire cohort of ca. 1800 students.

103 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Recognised Limitations Small sample size. The 40 students who participated in the focus group interviews are only a small percentage of the entire cohort of ca. 1800 students. The students that were interviewed were the class chairpersons. Are they typical students whose opinions reflect those of their peers?

104 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Recognised Limitations Small sample size. The 40 students who participated in the focus group interviews are only a small percentage of the entire cohort of ca. 1800 students. The students that were interviewed were the class chairpersons. Are they typical students whose opinions reflect those of their peers? Just because a student (or anybody for that matter) says something, does not make it true!

105 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Further Research

106 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Further Research To address the recognised limitations of the qualitative study, items that have been coded from the students’ focus group interviews will be translated into survey questions that will be given out for all students to complete.

107 Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Further Research To address the recognised limitations of the qualitative study, items that have been coded from the students’ focus group interviews will be translated into survey questions that will be given out for all students to complete. Numerical data obtained from the survey will be statistically analysed, thus giving a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative information. This will allow (confident) recommendations to be made to both the school’s teachers and student population with regards to performance tasks.

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