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How do Dopamine, Serotonin influence the Mood, Sleep, Attention, Learning? 54 陳芷安 91 蔡逸松.

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Presentation on theme: "How do Dopamine, Serotonin influence the Mood, Sleep, Attention, Learning? 54 陳芷安 91 蔡逸松."— Presentation transcript:

1 How do Dopamine, Serotonin influence the Mood, Sleep, Attention, Learning? 54 陳芷安 91 蔡逸松

2 What Is the Difference Between Dopamine & Serotonin? Similarities Neurotransmitters mood and emotion, regulate appetite, sex, aggression mental illnesses, such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Similarities Neurotransmitters mood and emotion, regulate appetite, sex, aggression mental illnesses, such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

3 Serotonin‘s Role emotion, appetite and sensory perceptions sleep, pain perception, body temperature, blood pressure and hormonal activity. learning, aggression and cognitive processes( 認知過程 ). emotion, appetite and sensory perceptions sleep, pain perception, body temperature, blood pressure and hormonal activity. learning, aggression and cognitive processes( 認知過程 ). Dopamine‘s Role movement, mood, motivation and pleasure Decreased →Parkinson's disease Increased →schizophrenia movement, mood, motivation and pleasure Decreased →Parkinson's disease Increased →schizophrenia

4 Dopaminergic Pathway in the Brain 1.Mesolimbocortical pathway 1.amygdala 2.nucleus accumbens 3.hippocampus VTA→limbic system: 2.Mesostratal pathway midbrain(substantia nigra) →striatum ( 紋狀體 ) ( caudate nucleus and putamen) 中腦 ( 黑質 ) ( 尾狀核和殼核 ) 皮質邊緣路徑 皮質底層路徑

5 Serotonergic Pathway in the Brain 1.→ 視丘、下視丘、基底節 basal ganglia 、海馬、皮質 2. → 小腦、脊髓

6 SLEEP MECHANISM At least four interacting neural systems underlie sleep…

7 Sleep: EEG (Electroencephalography)

8

9 The reticular formation wakes up the forebrain An extensive region of the brainstem (extending from the medulla through the thalamus) that is involved in arousal. Forebrain System: display SWS Brainstem System : wake up the forebrain Pontine System : trigger REM sleep Hypothalamic System : affects the other 3 brain regions and determine whether the brain will be awake or asleep (Upstream activation)

10 Raphe Nuclus 中縫核 Locus Coeruleus 藍斑 Thalamus 丘腦 Basal forebrain 基底前腦 Basal ganglia 基底節 Upper mudulla Upper pons Midbrain Lower pons

11 Sleep SerotoninDopamine Normal secretion ↓ Increase dreaming ↓ Sleep well Normal secretion ↓ Increase dreaming ↓ Sleep well melatonin↑: REM serotonin ↑: awake and active Light→serotonin (power) →pineal gland (synthesis) →melatonin dark →melatonin melatonin↑: REM serotonin ↑: awake and active Light→serotonin (power) →pineal gland (synthesis) →melatonin dark →melatonin

12 Mood Serotonin Dopamine Effect affection feeling excited, happy Dopamic nurons in VTA is the basic unit of nuron which promote the emotional brain Effect affection feeling excited, happy Dopamic nurons in VTA is the basic unit of nuron which promote the emotional brain Symptoms of Low Level Difficulty focusing The smallest task can seem like a chore. Chronic fatigue Appetite/sleep disturbance Low libido Low to no self-esteem Social withdrawal Symptoms of Low Level Difficulty focusing The smallest task can seem like a chore. Chronic fatigue Appetite/sleep disturbance Low libido Low to no self-esteem Social withdrawal

13 Medial Regions of the Brain Involved in Emotions 杏仁核 海馬 海馬旁 迴

14 NEUROECONOMICS The study of brain mechanisms at work during economic decision making.

15 Brain Reward Systems Early studies: establishing the generality of their function and their neurochemical bases. Animal experiments: animals can withstand electric shock, exert significant physical effort, and even reduce food intake to obtain electrical stimulation in appropriate brain areas.

16 Value Assessment To augment reward-producing behaviors: Generating learning signals 學習的機制 : Montague, P.R. et al. (1996) A framework for mesencephalic dopamine systems based on predictive Hebbian learning. J. Neurosci. 16, 1936– Adaptively updating goal states and attentional focus in working memory 注意力的機制 : Braver, T.S. and Cohen, J.D. (2000) On the control of control: the role of dopamine in regulating prefrontal function and working memory. In Attention and Performance (Monsell, S. and Driver, J., eds), pp.713–737, Academic Press

17 Learning Serotonin Hippocampus accepted serotonin. 1.increase: hippocampus activated, learn and memorize better 2.reduce: forgettable, Degenerative brain or atrophy. Hippocampus accepted serotonin. 1.increase: hippocampus activated, learn and memorize better 2.reduce: forgettable, Degenerative brain or atrophy. Dopamine rewarding experiences Dopamine increases motivation or desire towards the reward induce learning rewarding experiences Dopamine increases motivation or desire towards the reward induce learning release

18 Limbic System ( 恐懼制約 ) Amygdala 杏仁核 Nucleus accumbens 伏隔核 Hippocampus 海馬 *Long-term potentiation: synaptic plasticity *Long-term potentiation: synaptic plasticity *Learning→ synaptic changing→transmitter changing

19 Attention Selective awareness of perceptual receptivity, involving the activation of certain brain regions.

20 Attention (ADHD for example) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A common, childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. More frequent in males than females Several genes on the X chromosome have been studied as candidate risk factors for ADHD including the 5-HT 2C receptor (HTR2C) gene. Pathogenesis of ADHD: dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A common, childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. More frequent in males than females Several genes on the X chromosome have been studied as candidate risk factors for ADHD including the 5-HT 2C receptor (HTR2C) gene. Pathogenesis of ADHD: dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems

21 5-HT 2C receptor A subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5- hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is coupled to Gq/G11 and mediates excitatory neurotransmission. The 5-HT 2C receptor (HTR2C) gene is located on human chromosome Xq24. 5-HT 2C receptor A subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5- hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is coupled to Gq/G11 and mediates excitatory neurotransmission. The 5-HT 2C receptor (HTR2C) gene is located on human chromosome Xq24.

22 Findings Polymorphism may be involved in the development of ADHD. Promoter activity: Single nucleotide substitution polymorphisms (SNP) in the upstream region of the 5-HT 2C Findings Polymorphism may be involved in the development of ADHD. Promoter activity: Single nucleotide substitution polymorphisms (SNP) in the upstream region of the 5-HT 2C

23 Findings: SNP in the 5-HT 2C

24 Reference 1. eHow.com How Does Serotonin Affect Mood? How Does Serotonin Affect Sleep? What Is the Difference Between Dopamine? affect-mood.html affect-mood.html 2. BMC Research Notes Investigation of the serotonin 2C receptor gene in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK samples 3. Wikipedia 4. S. Marc Breedlove, Mark R. Rosenzweig, Neil V. Watson, “Biological Psychology”, page.90-93, , , ,

25 5. Alan G. Sanfey, George Loewenstein, Samuel M. McClure and Jonathan D. Cohen, "Neuroeconomics: cross-currents in research on decision-making", TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences Vol.10 No.3 March 2006, Page nCrossCurrent.pdf nCrossCurrent.pdf 6. 危芷芬, Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology, page , , 尹艳茹, " 睡眠生理 - 覺醒和睡眠的基本機轉 ", 南方醫科大 學基礎醫學院生理學教研室


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