Presentation on theme: "What is the Self Concept? The Self. The ideas, attitudes, and perceptions people have about themselves The image one has of oneself. self-concept."— Presentation transcript:
The ideas, attitudes, and perceptions people have about themselves The image one has of oneself. self-concept is important in how a person judges and evaluates other persons or products. What model or brand of automobile is an "upwardly mobile urban professional" (yuppie) likely to purchase? And the construction worker?
72% of men and 85% of women are unhappy with at least one aspect of their appearance Many products are bought because people are trying to highlight or hide some aspect of the self
We buy things like luxury cars, sporty cars, clothes, scents, jewellery, clothes vacations, exercise equipment, cologne, etc. because of how they make us feel better about ourselves
Self Esteem Slogans Diet Coke "Live your life" — or, in other words, drink it because you just feel good about it - not to lose weight Apple computer: "The Power to Be Your Best.“ Charles Atlas "You Too Can Have A Body Like Mine.“ Camay soap "You are in a Beauty Contest Every Day of your Life.” Gillette: “The best a man can get." Dasani: "Treat yourself well. Everyday."
The real and the Ideal The Gap creates a tension The Real - the reality of who we are The Ideal - who we would like to be. Products are purchased because they are consistent with either self.
The Real and the Ideal Many products appeal to consumers tendencies to fantasize about the way we would like to be The Breck girls were idealized images of an American woman from the 1930s to the 1980s who Advertising executives thought everyone could love: a woman both desirable and chaste poses were executed in pastels, with soft focus and haloes of light and color to create highly romantic images of feminine beauty and purity
Multiple Selves consumers are different people at different times We play different roles - in class or at work Different selves have different consumption patterns Clairol permits you to explore and express the full range of your multiple selves
1998 Bacardi launches a $15 million advertising campaign under the theme "Bacardi by night." "We know our consumers do something each day -- they work, they have responsibilities. But at night they let off steam. Who do the ads target?
CONSUMPTION AND SELF CONCEPT Consumption of products and services contributes to the definition of self. Consumers exhibit attachment to products to the extent that it is used by the person to maintain his or her self concept.
What does it Mean to be a Man in Our Society Men never cry Should not show emotion Not quitters Physically brave Independent Heroic and patriotic ideals Adventurous Shaving First day at work - earning a wage Initiations tough Courageous Drinking Physical strength Sex
This ad is striking because it shows a man in what is typically thought of as a woman’s role. What does the fact that he can open the pail “without passing out” say about men? Men are domesticated. Sex objects
This Pirelli image of Carl Lewis wearing red high heel shoes challenges the conventional view of black male athletes as being ‘super-masculine’
Gays are 12 times more likely to be in professional jobs, 94% more likely to use a product of service advertised in a gay publication
Nearly 85% of top officers in Fortune 500 companies are men. 54% of privately owned firms are owned by men. Men make up approximately 53% of the U.S. labor force. In 2000, the average annual salary for men was $37,339, an average of $10,000 more than women. 16% of men who work full-time earn $75,000 or more annually. Why have men remained the primary target for marketers?
freedom According to Rodman Sims (Marketing to Men ) there are only three things that matter to men Sextoys
Women as Consumers “Shopping is female” Paco Underhill Women buy or influence the purchase of 80% of all consumer goods and 51% of all consumer electronics. Women influence 80% of all family health care decisions and buy 75% of all over-the- counter medications. Women accounted for 65% of new vehicle purchases in 2002; they also made just slightly less than half of all used-car purchases. 80 per cent of the household dollar is spent by women
The products do not need to be geared towards women since they generally control spending for their family's household, as well as for their own personal needs 70% of men's underwear is bought by women. Studies continue to show that women control purchases of everything from household goods to investments and expensive consumer durables such as automobiles.
According to a study by Business Week and Gallup, women will control $1 trillion by 2010, representing nearly two-thirds of the USA’s wealth. While women have more money, they now have less time than in the past and shopping now plays a mostly functional and less recreational role
For many women shopping is a social activity When women shop together they tend to spend more time and money than when alone “bring- a-friend-get-a-discount” Seating areas outside dressing rooms Cafes on the premises to allow women to shop, and take a break without leaving the selling floor How can you take advantage of this?
Take more care in choosing their purchases and are more likely to study products before they buy. For many products they require more privacy Women’s spatial requirements are greater than men’s Women demand more of a retail environment than men Environments where they have more space and can spend more time and money For women shopping is more of a ritual
1.Women are now more price conscious they have a new "value" mindset about shopping - Retailers need to market a strong value message 2.Women up to their mid 40s are receptive to shopping as a means of keeping up with trends and fashions. Creating and marketing new products for women in their 30s & 40s could yield good results, for they generally have more money to spend.. 3. women have severe reactions to poor customer service: walking out, not buying, not returning to the store, and spreading the word among their friends (37% of women choose one store over another based on customer service).Customer service must be a priority Women's Changing Attitudes Toward Shopping
4.Because women steadily lose interest in the "shopping experience" as a goal unto itself as they age, retailers should arrange their stores with the products for younger women in a more experiential setting and those for women over thirty-five in a more straightforward display. 5. Women over 60 are more likely to shop for social reasons and, though to a lesser extent, as a means of giving themselves a little pick-me-up. Older women (60+) should be courted differently than younger women. Retailers need to create an atmosphere that induces conversations among customers, one which promotes items typically purchased for treats for oneself (e.g. clothes and clothing accessories, craft items, home décor items).
Do women feel less valued than male consumers? If so what can businesses do about it? How should women be portrayed in promotional material? Do companies generally meet the needs of women as consumers? Canadian research has indicated women are not particularly impressed by firms seeking their dollars..
Cascade Dishwashing Detergent 1958 issue of Lady's Home Journal. The man in this ad is envious of his hostess' spotless drinking glasses. Rather than giving him advice on how to get his glasses just as clean, she advises him to tell his wife to use Cascade. The designers of this ad assume that washing dishes is a woman's chore. The roles are strictly defined; it never crosses the woman's mind that Jean's husband might have something to do with dishwashing in his household. How are women portrayed today?
She is a nurturer and a seducer. She is the twenty-four hour a day woman, and she never sleeps. Is it a mistake to portray women this way? Many contemporary ads portray women as "multifaceted success machines”.
Which word seems to go with each picture? taketa naluma
consonants are sonorants perceived as “softer” and more “feminine” Chanel, a perfume taketa Because the consonants are hard it is perceived as “harder” and more “masculine” Clorox, a hard-working laundry product Sound Symbolism: The vast majority of people pair taketa with the angular illustration and naluma with the curved one.
Social Influences (continued) Sex roles: society’s expectations about the appropriate attitudes, behaviours, and appearance for men and women. Products can take on the attributes of their users, and become linked to one gender or another. Men buy hardware while women shop for clothing and food(?) In today’s social environment of gender equality, changing roles, and political correctness, these rules no longer apply.
BODY IMAGE Is there an ideal body image? How an individual conceptualizes his/her personal appearance including the size, shape, and weight of his/her body
While on average people weigh more than they did 20 years ago; the perceived 'ideal' body type is getting thinner. This dissonance has been found to contribute to body dissatisfaction in both men and women
A poll by Kellogg’s found that 62 percent out of a sample of 503 women over 18-years-old believe that an ideal body weight and size do exist. These women said the major factor determining the feminine ideal comes from television advertising or fashion magazines.
Ads appearing in popular teen magazines promise to transform a girl’s appearance. While these ads are designed to encourage a girl to use make-up and dieting to look acceptable, they can undermine her self-confidence and contribute to negative body image Girls are usually more concerned with appearance than boys because they have been socialized to overemphasize appearance
One study of Saturday morning toy commercials found that 50% of commercials aimed at girls spoke about physical attractiveness, while none of the commercials aimed at boys referred to appearance Other studies found 50% of advertisements in teen girl magazines and 56% of television commercials aimed at female viewers used beauty as a product appeal. Teen People Magazine March 2003
One study found women’s magazines have 10.5 times more ads and articles promoting weight loss than men’s magazines did.
Victoria’s Secret is Revealed What does this ad suggest women should look like? The current ideal of female beauty is difficult to achieve. The ideal being a young Caucasian female, height 5'8"- 5'10", weighing 110-120 pounds or less. Make-up, lighting and air-brushing are used to slim down the images even more. Less than 10% of the female population are genetically destined to fit this ideal. Victoria’s Secret, “Angels’ Collection”
In 1957, Miss America was 5'7" and weighed 150 pounds. In 2002 Miss America was 5'9 " and weighed 117 pounds Changing beauty standards Katie Harman Gresham, Oregon Marian McKnight Manning, S.Carolina
Bulimic Barbie The latest addition to Mattel's best-selling fashion doll range has caused near-riots in toy stores as children and collectors alike rush to pick up their very own Bulimic Barbie. The new doll, complete with a fridge full of ice cream, chocolate and cake, is the epitome of doll technology. "Look at this," squealed mother-of-two Dawn Galway, 31, activating the toy's realistic gag reflex by pushing its hand into its mouth. "Isn't that the cutest thing you've ever seen?" she asked, as the synthetic vomit gushed into the tiny basin. A Mattel PR spokeswoman said: "Mattel have an ongoing commitment to fans of Barbie to keep her relevant and now. Market research indicates that many young girls are developing a fascination with bulimia and other eating disorders, and this new doll reflects that." Barbie enthusiast Kylie Holridge, 10, said. "Now, with Bulimic Barbie, I know just how to get that perfect thin figure. Kylie's elder sister Jodie, 13, said that Barbie has inspired her quest for a slimmer, trimmer figure since she was nine.
Matel, the makers of Barbie, sued The Body Shop, UK for this ad. They withdrew it and settled out of court.
Kellogg’s Special K cereal realized that campaigns featuring young, thin models barely squeezing into tight clothes alienated their older audience, “Our consumers told us they really couldn't relate to advertising techniques that used unrealistic body images. "They said that they couldn’t live up to the standards of beauty dictated by advertisers." 1998 Kellogg's Special K runs a campaign that says there is no ideal body weight.
“Men are Supposed to be Strong” What message does this ad send to men? Women? Do we usually see more scantily clad men or women? Is this what a man looks like? Should men look like this? Why or why not? Where do our ideals of beauty come from?
Recent advertising trends are just as harmful to men Unforgiving & unrealistic images Men’s magazines encourage obsession with body image, aging & sexual prowess