72% of men and 85% of women are unhappy with at least one aspect of their appearance
Which of the following has caused you to have a bad day? Skin Problems (12%) Clothes you had on (11%) How your hair looked (77%) If you could make only one change with your hair, what would it be? More attractive color (3%) Be thicker/fuller (93%) Less or more curly (5%) At which occasions have you wished you had a better hair day? Wedding (4%) College/High School Reunion (1%) Night out on the town (12%) Business meeting (3%) Everyday (79%)
Self Esteem Slogans DIET COKE "Live your life" or, in other words, drink it because you just feel good about it - not to lose weight APPLE COMPUTER: "The Power to Be Your Best." CHARLES ATLAS "You Too Can Have A Body Like Mine." CAMAY SOAP "You are in a Beauty Contest Every Day of your Life. GILLETTE: The best a man can get."
The Real and the Ideal The Real - the reality of who we are The Ideal - who we would like to be. The Gap creates a tension Products are purchased because they are consistent with either self. Many products appeal to consumers tendencies to fantasize about the way we would like to be poses executed in pastels, with soft focus and haloes of light and color create highly romantic images of feminine beauty and purity.
Multiple Selves consumers are different people at different times We play different roles - in class or at work Different selves have different consumption patterns Clairol permits you to explore and express the full range of your multiple selves
1998 Bacardi launches a $15 million advertising campaign under the theme "Bacardi by night." "We know our consumers do something each day -- they work, they have responsibilities. But at night they let off steam," Sardina said. young professionals Who do the ads target?
CONSUMPTION AND SELF CONCEPT Consumption of products and services contributes to the definition of self. Consumers exhibit attachment to products to the extent that it is used by the person to maintain his or her self concept.
Cask & Cream Reversing a Trend of Self-Denial, This Ad Illustrates a Shift in Values Toward Pleasure and Self-indulgence
What does it Mean to be a Man in Our Society Men never cry Should not show emotion Not quitters Physically brave Independent Heroic and patriotic ideals Adventurous Shaving First day at work - earning a wage Initiations tough Courageous Drinking Physical strength Sex
This Pirelli image of Carl Lewis wearing red high heel shoes challenges the conventional view of black male athletes as being super-masculine
Gays are 12 times more likely to be in professional jobs, 94% more likely to use a product of service advertised in a gay publication
80 per cent of the household dollar is spent by women Women as Consumers
The products do not need to be geared towards women since they control spending for their family's household, as well as for their own personal needs 70 per cent of men's underwear is bought by women. Studies continue to show that women control purchases of everything from household goods to investments and expensive consumer durables such as automobiles.
According to a study by Business Week and Gallup, women will control $1 trillion by 2010, representing nearly two-thirds of the nation's wealth.
Do women feel less valued than male consumers? If so what can businesses do about it? Do companies generally meet the needs of women as consumers? Canadian research has indicated women are not particularly impressed by firms seeking their dollars..
ROSIE THE RIVETER All the day long, Whether rain or shine, She's a part of the assembly line. She's making history, Working for victory, Rosie the Riveter. Keeps a sharp lookout for sabatoge, Sitting up there on the fuselage. That little girl will do more than a male will do. Rosie's got a boyfriend, Charlie. Charlie, he's a Marine. Rosie is protecting Charlie, Working overtime on the riveting machine. When they gave her a production "E," She was as proud as she could be. There's something true about, Red, white, and blue about, Rosie the Riveter. Depiction of Women in Ads Redd Evans and John Jacob Loeb, "Rosie the Riveter," (New York: Paramount Music Corp., 1942
November 1942 For whether she rears a family or mans a rangefinder, a woman needs the physical support of a good foundation." and "Amongst other munitions of war, Berlei are still making foundations.". In the 1940s, women were encouraged to help the war effort by getting a job outside the home. But it was family and country rather than money, status, or power that they were encouraged to toil for. Coke 1942
1950s - mass consumption in high gear, TV ads idealized the woman as the wife and homemaker, and the man as the bread winner. But also the sex kitten
1960s - educated women started exhibiting their discontent with the depiction of women in ads. Armed with diplomas and new sophisticated birth control methods, they demanded for the right to have both career and family. The great social change in the sixties allowed a variety of depictions of women: sex kitten, nurturing mother and independent working girl. Men become consumers.
1970s Advertisers in the nineteen seventies realized the changing roles of women, and so they used such issues like woman's lib, ethnic heritage, and critiques of capitalism to sell their products. Advertisers realized that not just white people were buying products. Ethnic people were placed in advertisements. 1980s independent woman.
1990s 2000s She is a "multifaceted success machine. She is a nurturer and a seducer. She is the twenty-four hour a day woman, and she never sleeps. Men are domesticated. Sex objects Is it a mistake to portray women this way?
OCCUPATIONS OF WOMEN SHOWN IN ADVERTISNG Business Executive 1958=0% 1970=0% 983=4% Professional 1958=0% 1970=0% 1983=15% Entertainment/sports 1958=11% 1970-58% 1983=33% Sales/Midlevel business 1958=6% 1970=8% 1983=33% White Collar 1958=72% 1970=17% 1983=4% Blue Collar 1958=0% 1970=17% 1983=4% Sullivan and O'Connor (1988)
WOMEN AS HOUSEWIFE/MOTHER For 50% of the major female characters, the primary setting is the home. Among men, 29% appear primarily in the home. The paid work setting includes 9% of women and 22% of men. The outdoor setting includes 11% of women and 19% of men. The number of ads showing men only is significantly greater at 24% than the 13% of women-only ads. Of the ads with voice-overs, 94% are male. Content analysis on the Portrayal of Sex Roles in Canadian Television Advertising, commissioned by the CRTC (1985)
Women are usually shown performing domestic tasks relating to the product. Male product representatives are mostly depicted using the product or giving instructions or advice. Men are shown as the beneficiaries in 54% of the food ads and 81% of the cleaning product ads. Ads that show the preparation and consumption of food tend to be populated with women and girls. How are women generally portrayed?
Images of women improving? From June 1999 issue of Glamour Part of outstanding ad campaign that accompanied the Womens World Cup You pass on more to your children and your grandchildren than your eye color,... You provide the living example that they can become more than they ever thought they could. Because you did. Just do it.
Conclusions Advertising generally portrays women as: dependent on or subservient to men primarily in the home or domestic settings preoccupied with physical attractiveness sex objects decorations for men product users/demonstrators
A poll by Kelloggs found that 62 percent out of a sample of 503 women over 18-years-old believe that an ideal body weight and size do exist. These women said the major factor determining the feminine ideal comes from television advertising or fashion magazines.
Ads appearing in popular teen magazines promise to transform a girls appearance. While these ads are designed to encourage a girl to use make-up and dieting to look acceptable, they can undermine her self-confidence and contribute to negative body image Girls are usually more concerned with appearance than boys because they have been socialized to overemphasize appearance
One study of Saturday morning toy commercials found that 50% of commercials aimed at girls spoke about physical attractiveness, while none of the commercials aimed at boys referred to appearance Other studies found 50% of advertisements in teen girl magazines and 56% of television commercials aimed at female viewers used beauty as a product appeal. Teen People Magazine March 2003
One study found womens magazines have 10.5 times more ads and articles promoting weight loss than mens magazines did.
Victorias Secret is Revealed What does this ad suggest women should look like? The current ideal of female beauty is difficult to achieve. The ideal being a young Caucasian female, height 5'8"- 5'10", weighing 110-120 pounds or less. Make-up, lighting and air-brushing are used to slim down the images even more. Less than 10% of the female population are genetically destined to fit this ideal. Victorias Secret, Angels Collection
Bulimic Barbie The latest addition to Mattel's best-selling fashion doll range has caused near-riots in toy stores as children and collectors alike rush to pick up their very own Bulimic Barbie. The new doll, complete with a fridge full of ice cream, chocolate and cake, is the epitome of doll technology. "Look at this," squealed mother-of-two Dawn Galway, 31, activating the toy's realistic gag reflex by pushing its hand into its mouth. "Isn't that the cutest thing you've ever seen?" she asked, as the synthetic vomit gushed into the tiny basin. A Mattel PR spokeswoman said: "Mattel have an ongoing commitment to fans of Barbie to keep her relevant and now. Market research indicates that many young girls are developing a fascination with bulimia and other eating disorders, and this new doll reflects that." Barbie enthusiast Kylie Holridge, 10, said. "Now, with Bulimic Barbie, I know just how to get that perfect thin figure. Kylie's elder sister Jodie, 13, said that Barbie has inspired her quest for a slimmer, trimmer figure since she was nine.
Matel, the makers of Barbie, sued The Body Shop, UK for this ad. They withdrew it and settled out of court.
Kelloggs Special K cereal realized that campaigns featuring young, thin models barely squeezing into tight clothes alienated their older audience, Our consumers told us they really couldn't relate to advertising techniques that used unrealistic body images. "They said that they couldnt live up to the standards of beauty dictated by advertisers." 1998 Kellogg's Special K runs a campaign that says there is no ideal body weight.
Men are Supposed to be Strong What message does this ad send to men? Women? Do we usually see more scantily clad men or women? Is this what a man looks like? Should men look like this? Why or why not? Where do our ideals of beauty come from?
Recent advertising trends are just as harmful to men Unforgiving & unrealistic images Mens magazines encourage obsession with body image, aging & sexual prowess