Presentation on theme: "WWII: The War at Home. Total War A war fought w/ no limits put on the resources used to achieve victory By 1942, Canada was committed to a policy of “Total."— Presentation transcript:
WWII: The War at Home
Total War A war fought w/ no limits put on the resources used to achieve victory By 1942, Canada was committed to a policy of “Total War”. All industries, materials and people were put to work for the war effort.
The BCATP King hoped that Canada's major contribution to the war would be the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) Air crews were brought over to Canada from all over the Commonwealth for training as pilots, navigators, air gunners, bombardiers, wireless operators. Canada provided air fields, air craft, basic services and Britain provided the instructors 130 000 graduates: 50 000 were pilots, & 73 000 grads were Canadian.
Government and the Economy The war launched Canada out of the depression and into an economic boom. C.D. Howe, minister of munitions and supply, quickly organized Canada’s war economy, he assumed near dictatorial powers telling businessmen what they would produce including how much and how fast. Canada became an industrial power, new factories were built, and old ones adapted for war purposes. Factories churned out thousands of guns, ships, fighter planes and military vehicles.
Government and the Economy By 1941 industries were working overtime to produce war materials; unemployment vanished. The Government created the National Selective Service (NSS) to place workers in industries where they were needed. If workers took jobs without NSS approval they could be fined $ 500 and jailed for a year.
Government and the Economy Bumper crops were experienced in the Prairies. Britain needed food desperately, so Canada started to produce new products - pork, beef, dairy products, oil seeds, lumber from B.C., mineral ores from mines in the Canadian Shield, fish from the Maritimes…all shipped overseas Manufacturing changed as well Toronto had munitions plants and ship building Montreal had aircraft factories. Canadians started to produce diesel engines, synthetic rubber, roller bearings, electronic equipment, high octane gasoline. By the end of the war, Canada had given Britain $ 3.5 billion in aid.
Canadian Production 1939-1945 Aircraft16 000 Rifles900 000 Military Vehicles815 000 Merchant Ships410 Landing Craft3 302 Navy Tugs254 Tanks6 500 Escort Ships487 Machine Guns244 000
Labour With so many men enlisting, Canada faced a labour shortage as early as 1941, most notably in war- related industries. In 1942, the Canadian government passed the National Selective Service Act to mobilize the country’s labour resources for the benefit of the war effort. One of the main strategies of the program was to recruit women for the work force.
“Women, Back Them Up -To Bring Them Back!” ■ At first only single women were recruited, but upon severe labour shortages, both married women and mothers were sought out; the government even funded daycare centres so that women would be free to work. ■ In 1943, there were approximately 225,000 Canadian women working in munitions factories.
In The Army Now… In 1941, for the first time in Canadian history, women were able to enlist in their own divisions of the Army, Navy and Air Force. Although Canadian women were not allowed into combat during the Second World War, they did just about everything else. Women served as nurses, stretcher bearers, drivers, machine operators, cooks and secretaries. They also flew Canadian built planes to bases in Britain and ferried officers and politicians from Ottawa to London. They were paid roughly 60% of what their male counterparts made
Enlistment By Women In Canada’s Armed Forces: Navy6 781 Air Force17 018 Army21 624 Medical Services4 518 Doctors58 Over 43,000 women served overseas in the Canadian Women’s Army Corps, the Royal Women’s Navy Service and the Women’s Division of the Royal Canadian Air Force. http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/second_world_war/clips/4974/
Wartime Prices and The Trade Board Prime Minister Mackenzie King was determined to avoid the problems of greed and inflation which had plagued the Canadian political landscape during the first World War The government set up the Wartime Prices and Trade Board (WPTB) to control prices and supervise the distribution of food and other scarce goods.
Rationing: A Little Goes a Long Way! To ensure there was a large enough supply to meet both military and civilian needs, certain staple goods were rationed. Rationed Items Included: Meat, Butter, Tea, Coffee, Gasoline, Tires (rubber), Alcohol, Clothing Fabric and Silk
Pitching in on all fronts Dedication to the war effort also extended outside the factories. Women’s organizations collected paper, glass, metal, rubber, rags and bones to be recycled into war supplies. They planted victory gardens, sewed clothes for troops and were recruited to work on farms and in factories.
Financing the War The Canadian Government did raise taxes during the Second World War to help offset the cost of financing the war. The increased revenue from higher taxes accounted for about one- half of all war-related expenses. To help pay for the rest, the Canadian government turned to an old idea: Victory Loans drives. The government conducted nine Victory Loan drives between June 1941 and October 1945. These campaigns raised nearly $12 billion by the end of the war.
Top Secret: Camp X Camp X, which operated in Oshawa, Ontario from 1941 to 1946, was a training camp responsible for training recruits for the Special Operations Executive of the British Security Coordination during World War II. It was comprised of two sections, the Special Training School No. 103, which trained allied agents in the techniques of secret warfare, and Hydra, a network which communicated messages between Canada, United States, and Great Britain.
Social Support: Expanding The Social Safety Net ■ The increased role of government was also visible in the expansion of the social safety net. In 1940, the government passed the Unemployment Insurance Act. In the face of unemployment, workers could now collect insurance. In 1944, the government introduced Family Allowance and in 1945 the first “baby bonus” cheques were mailed out.
homework p. 132 1-2 p. 133 1 p. 138 1-2 WORK ON YOUR DEBATE
Conscription Crisis: Part II
Thoughts on Conscription DISCUSS the answer to the following questions… In your opinion, what would justify Canada going to war, either alone or in a coalition? What reasons would you accept as justifiable for the federal government to impose conscription, i.e. obligatory enrolment in military service? Who should be conscripted? Men, women, recent immigrants, immigrants from the countries with which Canada is at war? What should be the age limits? What would justify, in your opinion, exemption? What penalties do you think those who refuse conscription should incur?
CONSCRIPTION Reasons to go to war Who should be Conscripted Penalties for refusal Exemption Reasons to impose Conscription
Answer the questions based on the video THE CONSCRIPTION CRISIS Read page 137 on the textbook- in your own words describe the Conscription Crisis of WWII. p.138 3-4