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Clive Jachnik. Introduction Some Teachings Democratic Republic Of Congo Liberia Indonesia Sri Lanka Potential Lessons Two Prayers And A Wish.

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Presentation on theme: "Clive Jachnik. Introduction Some Teachings Democratic Republic Of Congo Liberia Indonesia Sri Lanka Potential Lessons Two Prayers And A Wish."— Presentation transcript:

1 Clive Jachnik

2 Introduction Some Teachings Democratic Republic Of Congo Liberia Indonesia Sri Lanka Potential Lessons Two Prayers And A Wish

3 “We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.” Gautama Buddha

4 “Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed.” UNESCO Preamble

5 "One should never harm the wicked or the good....A noble soul will exercise compassion even towards those who injure others" Ramayana of Valmiki

6 "the wisdom that comes from heaven is...peace- loving, considerate, submissive, full of mercy impartial and sincere." James 3: 17-18

7 “My Lord, who is the greatest of Thy servants in Thy estimation?” “The one who forgives when he is in a position of power.” Hadith of Baihaqi

8 Hatred does not cease by hatred, but only by love. This is the eternal rule. Gautama Buddha

9 “When I despair, I remember that all through history the ways of truth and love have always won.” Mahatma Gandhi

10 “Any life that is lost in war is a human life, be it that of an Arab or Israeli……They are ours, be they living on Arab or Israeli land.” Anwar Sadat - Speech to the Israeli Knesset

11 “We never get rid of an enemy by meeting hate with hate; we get rid of an enemy by getting rid of enmity.” Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

12 “The first thing is to be honest with yourself. You can never have an impact on society if you have not changed yourself.” Nelson Mandela

13 Democratic Republic of Congo Royal Navy Commander 1999-2000 Political Affairs Officer 2002 MONUC DDR Team Leader North Kivu/Ituri 2002-2004 Head of the Rapid Response Mechanism 2006-2007 Novel grass-roots DDR methodology 4,500 People Repatriated to Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi Absorption of Mai-Mai leaders into national army National SSR and police capacity building



16 Democratic Republic of Congo 1960: Independence for Africa's third largest country 1965 – 1996: President Mobuto Sese Seko 1996: Rwandan troops and Laurent Kabila enter DRC Mobuto flees. Kabila is declared President 1998: Kabila orders foreign troops out. Most refuse Rwanda-allies RCD attack GoDRC army to oust Kabila Angola, Zimbabwe, Namibia support Kabila 1999: RCD withdraw to hold the east part of DRC 1999: Uganda-backed MLC take control in north DRC

17 Democratic Republic of Congo June 1999: Stalemate with DRC divided into three Aug 1999: Lusaka Accord. Inter-Congolese Dialogue ICD includes government, armed opposition, political opposition and civil society Violence across DRC continues Failure to implement Lusaka Accord and ICD 2001: Kabila assassinated. Replaced by son Joseph October 2001: ICD commences in Addis Ababa February 2002: Addis ICD fails. Moves to Sun City

18 Democratic Republic of Congo April 2002: ICD signs 34 governance resolutions 2002: Peace Accords signed by DRC, Rwanda, Uganda April 2003: ICD approves ‘Final Act’ agreement Two-year transitional government, headed by Joseph Kabila with four Vice-Presidents July 2006: First multi-party elections. Kinshasa war. MONUC takes control of capital October 2006: New election. Kabila wins 70% of vote December 2006: President Joseph Kabila sworn in

19 Democratic Republic of Congo 2006: Kivus and Ituri fighting continues in East 2006: Nkunda forms CNDP and allies to FDLR March 2009: Nkunda arrested and CNDP sign peace treaty 2012: CNDPs Bosco Ntaganda mutinies to form M23 November 2012: M23 captures Goma but withdraws February 2013: UN Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC signed by 11 African nations August 2013: Goma shelled by M23 and Rwanda* Present: Continued fighting in Eastern DRC

20 Potential Lessons Of 362 ICD delegates, 66 represent DRC civil society ICD formed 5 Commissions to map governance Political and Judicial (16), Economic and Finance (5), Humanitarian/Cultural (16), Defence and Security (10) and Peace and National Reconciliation (19) Rural DRC polled on civil society role in ICD Civil society viewed as impartial in DRC Civil society mobilize opinions/harmonize agendas Culminates in 4-day National Civil Society Dialogue Defines civil society goals for west and east DRC

21 Notable Points DRC civil society took a proactive key role in ICD Direct involvement in a top level political process ‘Ambassadors for Peace’ mediated local meetings MONUC established ‘A Committee of Wise Elders’ ‘One UN Approach’ to DRC recovery Holistic regional initiative adopted by 11 nations UN regional approach to peacebuilding

22 Liberia Head of UNMIL DDR 2005-2007 105,000 People Disarmed and Dembolised 400 People Repatriated to Guinea, Sierra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire and other African countries Included unarmed women and children in DDR Community arms’ mop-up scheme Transitional justice for weapon ownership Established best-practice for UN DDR operations Began SSR and capacity building processes



25 Liberia 1847: Liberia declares independence 1989: Charles Taylor ‘s NPFL invade, ousting dictator Doe NPFL assassinates Doe and takes 90 percent of the country 1991: NPFL splits whilst ULIMO and RUF join combat 1996: Abuja Accord signed and Taylor elected 1997-2000: Fragile peace. RUF plunges Sierra Leone into war 2003: LURD and MODEL reduce Taylor's control to a third June 2003: CPA signed in Accra and Taylor resigns August 2003: National Transitional Government runs Liberia 2006: President Johnson-Sirleaf democratically elected Present: A fragile state enjoying relative peace

26 Potential Lessons Civil society helped shape the peace agreement Ensured democratic decision-making in negotiations Ensured acceptance of CPA by the Liberian people Effective use of public information Engagement of CBOs, NGOs and women activists Leadership training of middle ranking police officers Effective ‘One UN Approach’ to recovery Needs national legal reform and plan for ROL sector Needs an overarching plan for national SSR

27 Notable Points CPA signed by GoL, LURD, MODEL, 18 pol. parties Ministries and public-agencies divided 4 ways between GoL, LURD, MODEL, and representatives of civil society who assumed political roles Other NGOs who signed and witnessed the CPA were: Association of Liberian Professional Organizations Mano River Women's Peace Network (MARWOPNET) Liberian Women's Initiative, Interfaith Mediation Ctte Inter-Religious Council for Liberia, Liberian Bar Assoc Rare example of NGO participation in peace process


29 Indonesia ADB Consultant 1995-1996 Head of Strategic Planning and Monitoring 2007-2009 DDR for 3,000 GAM ex-combatants and 2,035 amnestied prisoners DDR for 3,204 GAM activists surrendering before MoU DDR for 6,500 members of pro-government militias 32,000 Indonesian security forces redeployed from Aceh Community peacebuilding projects in Aceh, Sulawesi, Maluku and West Timor Draft DRR and SSR legislation



32 Indonesia 1602: Dutch East India Company established 1800: Netherlands nationalises East Indies Colony 1900s: Dutch rule extends to Indonesia's current area 1908: Start of Indonesian independence movement 1942-1945: Japanese military occupation 1945: Indonesia's declaration of independence 1945-1949: War of Independence with Netherlands 1949: Netherlands' recognises independence 1962: Dutch West New Guinea (Papua) incorporated

33 Indonesia 1965: Attempted coup and anti-communist purge March 1968: General Suharto replaces Sukarno 1996-1998: Political protest and ethnic riots May 1998: President Suharto resigns 1999: East Timor votes to secede after 25 year occupation 2004: First ever direct presidential election December 2004: Indian Ocean Earthquake/Tsunami 2005: Political settlement of Aceh separatist conflict Present: Occasional secessionist/terrorist violence

34 Potential Lessons Regional autonomy programme since 2004 Strengthening of democratic processes since 2004 Effective use of civil society, CBOs, NGOs and women Successful ‘One UN Approach’ to recovery Consultative grass-roots ‘bottom-up’ planning processes eg: ‘Musrenbang’ DDR for GAM plus pro-government Aceh militias Ex GAM report at police stations in DDR Separate Aceh police desks for women Tailored Aceh police capacity building

35 Notable Points One year amnesty declared for the surrender of arms held by civilians until 31 December 2005 in CPA GoI agree to ratify the UN Covenants on Civil and Political plus Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Court of Human Rights remain controversial GoI has said its intension is for courts only to judge matters subsequent to the date of CPA signing

36 ‘There is a need to improve public services in all regions through more democratic, accountable, professional, responsive and decentralized governance. Basically, decentralization and autonomy is aimed at establishing a closer relationship between government and the people.’ President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (August 23, 2005)

37 Indonesia - Musrenbang Means: “community discussion + development plan” A participatory budgeting process where residents discuss short-term issues facing their communities Prioritise needs and informs local government Support assigned to most needy neighbourhoods Musrenbang is a ‘bottom-up’ process introduced to replace GoI centralized ‘top-down’ planning Musrenbang process also exists at district, city and provincial levels Consultative and inclusive development

38 Indonesia - Musrenbang Musrenbang enshrined in local legislation GoI central budget implements Musrenbang Media sensitizes for maximum participation Calendar and Flow Chart of the planning and budgeting processes published All stakeholders and their roles published Gender and minority participation mainstreamed Proactive advice offered by local government Media publication of minutes and findings


40 Sri Lanka Programme Manager – Reintegration and Reconciliation 2010-2013 Reintegration support for 8,500 Ex-LTTE clients Community peacebuilding projects supported Initial SSR projects designed and drafted Seconded to advise Somali and Kenyan governments on Al-Shabaab



43 Sri Lanka Geneva, Funds and Access to PARCs A unique welcome Military victory and long-term peace ICRS sensitization Engaging the caseload Missing public awareness and reinsertion ICRS re-design with counselling, Fading support and incomplete ICRS A missed opportunity

44 Potential Lessons - General Use of UN Peacebuilding Commission National coordination of peacebuilding activities Decentralization of the peace debate Establishing impartial ‘Peace Ambassadors’ Form ‘Community of Practice’ for peace activists Encouraging ‘Community Peace Committees’ Empower traditional ‘Committees of the Wise’ Transfer local/regional reconciliation methods

45 Potential Lessons - General DDR is nationally-owned and people-centred DDR should be transparent and accountable Any DDR process should be completed Reintegration is social, economic and political DDR forms part of long-term SSR plans DDR is not sustainable without reconciliation Reconciliation needs sustainable peacebuilding Peacebuilding is an ongoing and ‘whole-nation’ process that requires full commitment

46 Potential Lessons - ROL Legally-sworn translators at police stations Language training at National Police Academy Fast track promotion for bilingual police officers Separated gender-appropriate police ‘desks’ Pilot projects for community policing principles Community policing committees Military and Police information ‘hotlines’ Surveys for future SSR at the right time

47 Potential Lessons - Youth Peace Studies in National Schools’ Curriculum Schools’ twining programmes. Activities for unification Ethnically-mixed sports’ galas, drama, choir, poetry and literature events National Peace Songs, Poetry, Poster and Badge Awards Joint Summer Peace, Sports and Language Camps National awards for best bilingual exam results Local multi-ethnic ‘Youth Parliaments’ Training to deliver reconciliation projects ‘Conflict Resolution Day’(3rd Thursday in October)

48 Potential Lessons - Media Radio Okapi (DRC) and Radio UNMIL (Liberia) Talking Drum, Ijambo, Radio Peacebuilding Africa Ethnically-diverse staff present a united front One TV documentary analysed 16 African conflicts Broadcast in 22 African countries in 40 local dialects Mobile cinema projects in African rural villages Workshops empowering bloggers in Arabia Reconciliation soap operas/TV ‘peace debates’ Media support can yield responsible reporting

49 Potential Lessons - Private Sector Lobby for development investment in N and E Vocational and business mentoring programmes Scholarships to fast-track minority managers Highlight equal opportunity in the workplace Allow time for workers’ peace committees Sponsorship of bilingual kindergartens Broadcast peace radio during workers’ shifts Display reconciliation material in the workplace

50 Peacebuilding Local ownership is essential for lasting peace Inclusiveness develops constructive relationships between all stakeholders The heart of the challenge is building trust so that society remains engaged in building lasting peace Only long-term commitments address the root causes of conflict and ensure sustainability Appropriate processes ensure legitimacy and holistic solutions to complex problems


52 Two Prayers And A Wish

53 Nelson’s Last Prayer On the morning of 21st October 1805 with the combined fleets of France and Spain in sight: ‘May the great God, whom I worship, grant to my country and for the benefit of Europe in general a great and glorious victory: and may no misconduct, in any one, tarnish it: and may humanity after victory be the predominant feature in the British fleet. For myself individually, I commit my life to Him who made me and may His blessing light upon my endeavours for serving my country faithfully. To Him I resign myself and the just cause which is entrusted to me to defend. Amen. Amen. Amen’.

54 St Mungo’s Prayer St Mungo established a monastery in the 6th century on the River Clyde near the site of Glasgow He is thought to have performed four miracles that are shown in Glasgow’s Coat of Arms Here's the bird that never flew. Here's the tree that never grew. Here's the bell that never rang. Here's the fish that never swam. St Mungo: ‘Lord, Let Glasgow Flourish by the preaching of Thy Word and the Praising of Thy Name’



57 A Wish Let Sri Lanka Flourish

58 Thank You

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