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Part 1: Materials of Music Units 1 & 2: Elements of Music & Musical Instruments and Ensembles Download the Musical Examples Here Download the Musical Examples.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 1: Materials of Music Units 1 & 2: Elements of Music & Musical Instruments and Ensembles Download the Musical Examples Here Download the Musical Examples."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 1: Materials of Music Units 1 & 2: Elements of Music & Musical Instruments and Ensembles Download the Musical Examples Here Download the Musical Examples Here

2 Chapter 1: Melody A coherent succession of single pitches. A coherent succession of single pitches. Words / Sentence Words / Sentence Highness / Lowness Highness / Lowness Frequency / Vibration Frequency / Vibration Distance between two different pitches Distance between two different pitches

3 Melody Continued Range: span of melody from highest to lowest note. It can be narrow or wide. Range: span of melody from highest to lowest note. It can be narrow or wide. Shape: determined by direction of melodic line; like a graph. Shape: determined by direction of melodic line; like a graph.

4 More Melody Movement of melody incorporates either small or large interval jumps. Movement of melody incorporates either small or large interval jumps. Examples: Conjunct: Disjunct: Examples: Conjunct: Disjunct: Phrase: like a phrase in a sentence; a unit of melody within a larger context (period). Phrase: like a phrase in a sentence; a unit of melody within a larger context (period). Period: Like a sentence; usually made up of two phrases. Period: Like a sentence; usually made up of two phrases. Example of Phrase/Period: Example of Phrase/Period:

5 Yet More about Melody Cadence: resting place or repose; last two notes of melody/ harmony. Cadence: resting place or repose; last two notes of melody/ harmony. Rhyme Scheme: like a poem; symmetrical; stanza of poetry. Rhyme Scheme: like a poem; symmetrical; stanza of poetry. Countermelody: two melodic ideas set against each other simultaneously. Countermelody: two melodic ideas set against each other simultaneously.

6 Chapter 2: Rhythm Syncopation: upsetting the normal pattern of accentuation. Syncopation: upsetting the normal pattern of accentuation. Polyrhythm: duple against triple; triple against quadruple. Polyrhythm: duple against triple; triple against quadruple. Additive Meter: combining duple and triple to form asymmetrical meters. Additive Meter: combining duple and triple to form asymmetrical meters. Non-metric: without strong pulse or meter. Non-metric: without strong pulse or meter.

7 Chapter 3: Harmony Simultaneously v. One-at-a-Time; Vertical v. Horizontal Simultaneously v. One-at-a-Time; Vertical v. Horizontal Scales: Patterns of Intervals Scales: Patterns of Intervals Scales Triad: Stacked thirds Triad: Stacked thirds Triad Tonality: major v. minor Tonality: major v. minor Tonic = “Do” Tonic = “Do” Diatonic v. Chromatic Diatonic v. Chromatic Dissonance v. Consonance Dissonance v. Consonance

8 Chapter 4: Musical Texture Monophonic: Single voiced Monophonic: Single voiced Heterophonic: Two simultaneous voices, both melodic with one being an ornamented version of the other. Heterophonic: Two simultaneous voices, both melodic with one being an ornamented version of the other. Homophonic: Several voices, one voice melody, and the other voices subordinate harmony in unison rhythm. Homophonic: Several voices, one voice melody, and the other voices subordinate harmony in unison rhythm.

9 Texture Continued Polyphonic: many-voiced texture, usually with two or more melodic lines. Polyphonic: many-voiced texture, usually with two or more melodic lines. Counterpoint: (literally note against note) the art of combining two or more melodic lines. Counterpoint: (literally note against note) the art of combining two or more melodic lines. Imitation: melody given in one voice and restated in another voice. Imitation: melody given in one voice and restated in another voice. Canon and round (simplest form of canon): Row, Row, Row your Boat. Canon and round (simplest form of canon): Row, Row, Row your Boat.

10 More about Counterpoint Inversion: Intervals stated upside-down Inversion: Intervals stated upside-down Retrograde: Intervals in melody stated backwards Retrograde: Intervals in melody stated backwards Retrograde Inversion: Intervals stated upside down and backwards Retrograde Inversion: Intervals stated upside down and backwards Augmentation: melody presented in longer note values Augmentation: melody presented in longer note values Diminution: melody stated in shorter note values Diminution: melody stated in shorter note values

11 Chapter 6: Musical Form Repetition versus Contrast: the familiar versus the interesting Repetition versus Contrast: the familiar versus the interesting Variation: falls between repetition and contrast Variation: falls between repetition and contrast Improvisation: created in performance; the structure is present. Improvisation: created in performance; the structure is present. Binary Form: A B or Two-Part Song Form Binary Form: A B or Two-Part Song Form Ternary Form: A B A or Three-Part Form Ternary Form: A B A or Three-Part Form

12 Formal Elements Continued Theme: building block in the construction of a musical work Theme: building block in the construction of a musical work Thematic Development: elaborating, varying or growing thematic material. Thematic Development: elaborating, varying or growing thematic material. Thematic Development Thematic Development Motive: short fragment of a theme Motive: short fragment of a theme Sequence: themes stated higher/lower Sequence: themes stated higher/lower Call and Response: question and answer Call and Response: question and answer Ostinato: short, repetitive pattern that serves as a unifying technique; can be melodic, rhythmic or harmonic. Ostinato: short, repetitive pattern that serves as a unifying technique; can be melodic, rhythmic or harmonic.

13 More about Thematic Development Passacaglia: continuous variations, usually in triple meter, on a ground bass (melodic line found in bass voice). Passacaglia: continuous variations, usually in triple meter, on a ground bass (melodic line found in bass voice). Chaconne: continuous variations, usually in triple meter, on a chord progression. Chaconne: continuous variations, usually in triple meter, on a chord progression. Movement: complete, comparatively independent division of a large-scale work (like a symphony, concerto, oratorio, etc.) Movement: complete, comparatively independent division of a large-scale work (like a symphony, concerto, oratorio, etc.)

14 Chapter 7: Musical Expression Tempo and Dynamics Tempo: rate of speed (fast/slow), carrying emotional implications Tempo: rate of speed (fast/slow), carrying emotional implications Tempo Markings: in Italian, representing Italian domination during the “Common Practice Period” (Baroque Period from CE) Tempo Markings: in Italian, representing Italian domination during the “Common Practice Period” (Baroque Period from CE)

15 Tempi Continued Grave: solemn Grave: solemn Largo: broad/very slow Largo: broad/very slow Adagio: quite slow Adagio: quite slow Andante: walking pace Andante: walking pace Moderato: moderately Moderato: moderately Allegro: fast/cheerful Allegro: fast/cheerful Vivace: lively Vivace: lively Presto: very fast Presto: very fast Poco a poco: little by little Poco a poco: little by little

16 Tempi Continued Molto: very Molto: very Meno: less Meno: less Non troppo: not too much Non troppo: not too much Accelerando (accel.): speed up gradually Accelerando (accel.): speed up gradually Ritardando (rit.): gradually getting slower Ritardando (rit.): gradually getting slower A tempo: return to the original tempo A tempo: return to the original tempo

17 Dynamics Pianissimo (pp) Pianissimo (pp) Piano (p) Piano (p) Mezzo Piano (mp) Mezzo Piano (mp) Mezzo Forte (mf) Mezzo Forte (mf) Forte (f) Forte (f) Fortissimo (ff) Fortissimo (ff) Crescendo Crescendo Decrescendo/ Diminuendo Decrescendo/ Diminuendo Sforzando (sfz) Sforzando (sfz) Metronome: measures the exact number of beats per minute Metronome: measures the exact number of beats per minute (Quarter Note = 100) (Quarter Note = 100)

18 Chapter 8: Musical Instruments & Ensembles Properties of Musical Sound: Pitch: position; how high/low is the vibration? Pitch: position; how high/low is the vibration? Duration: how long does the vibration continue? Duration: how long does the vibration continue? Volume: how intense (loud/soft) is the vibration? Volume: how intense (loud/soft) is the vibration? Timbre: the color of the sound; determined by the type of vibration (lip, reed, string, etc.), material of construction (wood, brass, membrane, etc.), size, or shape. Timbre: the color of the sound; determined by the type of vibration (lip, reed, string, etc.), material of construction (wood, brass, membrane, etc.), size, or shape.

19 Instruments/Ensembles Continued Instrument: a mechanism that generates vibrations (mechanical waves) and sends them out into the air: the human voice and other musical instruments. Instrument: a mechanism that generates vibrations (mechanical waves) and sends them out into the air: the human voice and other musical instruments. Register: related to range (highest and lowest notes an instrument can produce); high, middle or low registers on different instruments produce different colors and musical effects. Register: related to range (highest and lowest notes an instrument can produce); high, middle or low registers on different instruments produce different colors and musical effects.

20 The Human Voice Men’s Vocal Ranges Tenor Tenor Baritone Baritone Bass Bass Tenors were popular in operas until the 18 th Century, when baritone/bass soloists gained popularity. Tenors were popular in operas until the 18 th Century, when baritone/bass soloists gained popularity. *males castrated in youth Women’s Vocal Ranges Soprano Soprano Mezzo-Soprano Mezzo-Soprano Alto Alto Women’s ranges were sung by boys and castrati* until the 15 th Century. Women’s ranges were sung by boys and castrati* until the 15 th Century. Vibrato: undulations produce forward motion Vibrato: undulations produce forward motion

21 The Human Voice Luciano Pavarotti – Nessun Dorma from Turandot Luciano Pavarotti – Nessun Dorma from TurandotNessun DormaNessun Dorma

22 Basic Musical Instruments Idiophones: vibrating mechanism is the instrument itself or some part of the instrument. Idiophones: vibrating mechanism is the instrument itself or some part of the instrument. Membranophones: vibrating mechanism is a membrane stretched across the instrument. Membranophones: vibrating mechanism is a membrane stretched across the instrument. Aerophones: air column is the vibrating mechanism. Aerophones: air column is the vibrating mechanism. Chordophones: a stretched string is the vibrating mechanism. Chordophones: a stretched string is the vibrating mechanism.

23 Basic Musical Instruments Which of these instruments are Which of these instruments are –Aerophones –Chordophones –Idiophones –Membranophones –

24 Chapter 9: Western Musical Instruments String Instruments: Violin: Violin: Italy Italy Amati Amati Guarneri Guarneri Antonio Stradivari Antonio Stradivari Soprano/Mezzo-Soprano Voices Soprano/Mezzo-Soprano Voices G, D, A, E G, D, A, E

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26 String Instruments Continued Viola: Viola: Larger than Violin Larger than Violin Alto Voice Alto Voice C, G, D, A C, G, D, A Violin & Viola together Violin & Viola together

27 Low Strings Violoncello, or cello Violoncello, or cello Tenor Voice Tenor Voice C, G, D, A C, G, D, A Violin & Cello together

28 Low Strings Double Bass, Bass Viol or Contrabass Double Bass, Bass Viol or Contrabass Bass voice Bass voice Always doubled unless played pizzicato Always doubled unless played pizzicato E, A, D, G E, A, D, G

29 More about Strings Special Effects Pizzicato-plucked Legato/Staccato Glissando Tremolo Double-, Triple- or Quadruple-Stops Harmonics Trill Mutes Harp / Arpeggio Harp / Arpeggio Guitar Guitar

30 Woodwind Instruments Flute Flute Piccolo Piccolo Oboe Oboe English horn English horn Clarinet Clarinet Bass Clarinet Bass Clarinet Bassoon Bassoon Contrabassoon Contrabassoon Saxophone Saxophone

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32 Brass Instruments Trumpet Trumpet Horn Horn

33 More Brass Trombone Trombone Euphonium Euphonium Tuba Tuba

34 Percussion Instruments Indefinite Pitch Indefinite Pitch Snare/Tenor Drum Snare/Tenor Drum Bass Drum Bass Drum Cymbals Cymbals Triangle Triangle Tambourine Tambourine Castanets Castanets Gong Gong Definite Pitch Definite Pitch Timpani Timpani Xylophone Xylophone Vibraphone Vibraphone Bells Bells

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36 Keyboard Instruments Piano Piano Harpsichord Harpsichord Organ Organ

37 Chapter 9: Musical Ensembles Choral Groups Chorus: large body of singers both for religious and non- religious occasions. Chorus: large body of singers both for religious and non- religious occasions. Choir: smaller body of singers, usually for religious occasions. Choir: smaller body of singers, usually for religious occasions. A cappella: “in church style”; without instrumental accompaniment. A cappella: “in church style”; without instrumental accompaniment.

38 Instrumental Chamber Ensembles Strings Strings –String Quartet –String Quintet –Sextet and Octet Duo Sonatas Duo Sonatas Trio Sonatas Trio Sonatas Piano & Strings Piano & Strings –Piano Trios –Piano Quartets –Piano Quintets Woodwind Quintets Woodwind Quintets Brass Quintets Brass Quintets

39 Orchestras Baroque Baroque Classical Classical Romantic Romantic Modern Modern

40 Wind/Percussion Ensembles Wind Ensemble/ Concert Band Wind Ensemble/ Concert Band Marching Band/ Drum Corps Marching Band/ Drum Corps Jazz Band Jazz Band Rock Band Rock Band Percussion Ensemble Percussion Ensemble Conductor (Can you name them?) Conductor (Can you name them?)

41 Chapter 10: Style and Function of Music in Society Classical v. Popular Classical v. Popular Function of Music Function of Music –Religious –Civic –Entertainment Genres: categories of repertoire Genres: categories of repertoire –Sacred Vocal Music –Instrumental Chamber Music –Opera Medium: the specific group that performs music Medium: the specific group that performs music –Choir –Orchestra –Piano Trio –Opera vocal soloists, choir and orchestra Oral Transmission Oral Transmission

42 Transition I: Hearing Musical Styles Melodically-oriented Melodically-oriented Highly developed system of harmony Highly developed system of harmony Style characteristics change from period to period. Style characteristics change from period to period. Conceptualization Conceptualization Forms & Techniques Forms & Techniques Ideal of Beauty Ideal of Beauty Manners of Expression Manners of Expression Cultural Climate Cultural Climate Historical Periods: Historical Periods: –Medieval ( ) –Renaissance ( ) –Baroque ( ) –Classical ( ) –Romantic ( ) –Modern (1900-present)


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