Presentation on theme: "Radical Days of Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1Radical Days of Revolution Section 3SWBAT:understand why and how radicals abolished the monarchyExplain why the Committee of Public Safety was created and why the Reign of Terror resultedSummarize how the excesses of the Convention led to the formation of the DirectoryAnalyze how the French people were affected by the changes brought about by the revolution.Radical Days of Revolution
2Do Now Tuesday1/15/13During the French and American revolutions printed materials were the primary means of communication. During WWII, radio and newspapers were the primary means of communication while during the Gulf Wars, television news and the Internet were used by many as the primary source of information.How has technology and access to it impacted the believability of propaganda?
3Radical RevolutionStorming Versailles – Royal family to Paris October 6, 1789Tensions rise abroadÉmigrés were groups of people hoping to restore the king’s powerLouis XVI attempted escape June 21, 1791Consequence RADICAL transition
4National Convention Louis XVI put on trial as a traitor to France Radicals take control of the AssemblyCall for new legislative body called the National Convention.Louis XVI put on trial as a traitor to France
5Another ConstitutionNational Convention drafts new constitution for France.Jacobins radical group control the Conventionerase all traces of the old orderSeized lands of nobles & abolished titles of nobilitySuffrage: the right to vote, for all male citizens, not just property ownersVoted toabolish the monarchyand establish a republic The French RepublicLouis XVI convicted (treason) & sentenced to death GuillotineExecuted January 1793
6The Royal Family Marie Antoinette outlived her husband by 9 months Found guilty of treason:October of 1793sent to the GuillotineMarie had two surviving children,Marie Therese & Louis CharlesLouis Charles died in prison in 1795 – age10Marie Therese exiled &marrieddied childless in 1851
7three most memorable Jacobins: Georges Danton, Maximilien Robespierre, Jean-Paul Marat.Because of a debilitating illness, Marat was forced to work from home.He was assassinated (in the tub while taking a medicinal bath)by Charlotte Corday, a Girondist sympathizer, in July, 1793.The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David
8Reign of Terror: September 5, 1793-July 27, 1794 Convention continued to face problems domesticallyJacobin political party dominated French politicsCommittee of Public SafetyHeaded by Danton (and later Robespierre)Those accused of treason were tried by the Committee’s Revolutionary TribunalApproximately 15,000 people died on the guillotineGuillotine became known as the “National Razor”
9Growing Coalition against the French Draft to defeat the foreign Coalitionpeople supported military operations they did not want to be back under the Old RegimeRouget de Lisle wrote the “Marseillaise”French national anthemInspired troops as they were led into battleAfter 2 yearsCoalition was defeatedFrance had gained territory
10Primary Source“It is necessary to stifle the domestic and foreign enemies of the Republic perish with them….The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror….If the basis of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the basis of popular government in time of revolution is both virtue and terror.”- Mazimilien Robespierre, quoted in Pageant of Europe
12End of the Reign of Terror Members of Girondist political party tried to end ROTThis opposition caused many Girondists to be tried and executed for treasonEventually, even Georges Danton wanted to end the executionsresulted in Danton being executed for treasonRobespierre leader of the Committee of Public Safetycontinued the executionsConvention blamed Robespierre for the Reign of TerrorThermidorean ReactionJuly 27, 1794 – ended Reign of TerrorRobespierre & other members of the Committee of Public Safety to the guillotineRobespierre was guillotined on July 28, 1794
13Constitution #3 (1795) Revolution Enters Third Stage Move away from the ConventionForm the DIRECTORYWith the foreign invaders vanquished & Reign of Terror over, the Convention was finally able to inaugurate its new constitutionFormed a two house legislature elected by male citizens of propertyMiddle class and professional people of the bourgeoisie were the dominant force of this stage
15Government under the Directory 5 directors appointed by the LegislatureExecutiveLower house (500 members) proposed lawsUpper house (250 members) voted on these laws2/3 of the Legislature would initially be filled by members of the ConventionLegislatureGirondists (middle-class party) had defeated the Jacobins (working- and peasant-class party)Girondists’ constitution stated that suffrage (the right to vote), as well as the right to hold office, were limited to property ownersQualifications
16Other Parting Reforms Passed by the Convention Adopted the metric systemDealt the final blow to feudalism by abolishing primogeniture (the system whereby the oldest son inherited all of his father’s estate)Drew up a comprehensive system of lawsEnded debt imprisonmentEnded slavery in France’s coloniesEstablished a nationwide system of public education
17Directory ( )The Directory suffered from corruption and poor administration.The people of France grew poorer and more frustrated with their government.Despite, or perhaps because of, these struggles, the French developed a strong feeling of nationalism – they were proud of their country and devoted to it.National pride was fueled by military successes.It would be a military leader – Napoleon Bonaparte, coming to power through a coup d’état – who would end the ten-year period ( ) known as the French Revolution.
18Review Questions1. What changes occurred after the Reign of Terror came to an end2. What human rights were established in France by the Declaration of the Rights of Man?3. How did Olympe de Gouges fight for women’s rights?4. What were émigrés, and why did French revolutionaries view them as a threat?5. Name and describe the two political parties that competed for power in revolutionary France.6. What was the Committee of Public Safety?7. Describe the Reign of Terror and explain how it eventually came to an end.8. Were the “excesses” of the French Revolution justified? Why or why not?9. Looking back at the first half of 1789, could the French Revolution have been avoided? If so, how?