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AS History Matters AS History Matters

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Presentation on theme: "AS History Matters AS History Matters"— Presentation transcript:

1 AS History Matters AS History Matters

2 AS History Matters AS History Matters

3 AS History Matters AS History Matters Thermidor: A period of moderation? A period of regression? A period of bourgeois revolution? Review and recall events of The Terror Explain the Coup of Thermidor 1794 to explain how the terror came to an end and how the period of Thermidor began

4 AS History Matters AS History Matters What percentage of each Estate were guillotined during The Terror?

5 AS History Matters AS History Matters

6 AS History Matters AS History Matters The Coup of Thermidor The end execution of Robespierre signified a rejection of government by terror. These events are known as the Coup of Thermidor as these events happened on 27 th July, under the new revolutionary calendar July had been named Thermidor. There was a popular outburst of relief when Robespierre was executed; ‘People were hugging each other in the street and at places of entertainment and they were so surprised to find themselves still alive and their joy almost turned into a frenzy’.

7 AS History Matters AS History Matters Who were the Thermidorians? Those who had helped overthrow Robespierre were a mixed group; members of the committees, ex-terrorists and deputies of the Plain. The Plain now rose to take control. However, they did not want to see the return of the monarchy, not even a constitutional one. They also dislike the Jacobins who had given too much power the sans-culottes and who had interfered with the free market through price maximums. They were also joined by many Montagnards.

8 AS History Matters AS History Matters The Risings of Germinal and Prairial The Thermidorians wanted to get rid of price controls and so in December 1794 they were abolished. However, this led to a drop in the value of the assignat and massive inflation. The situation was made worse by a poor harvest which led to grain shortages. Added to this was an unprecedented severe winter which meant that rivers froze and factories closed down. The problem was that there was no corn as farmers refused to sell it for paper money.

9 AS History Matters AS History Matters Who were the Plain and what were their policies during the Thermidorian Reaction?

10 AS History Matters AS History Matters The White Terror The ‘White Terror’ was an attack on ex- terrorists who had done well out of the Revolution by those who had suffered under it. On the whole it was a revenge attack on all those who had been members of the popular societies and watch committees 1.What forms did the White Terror take? 2.How dangerous were the White Terrorists? 3.Why did the White Terror pose so little threat to the Republic?

11 AS History Matters AS History Matters Constitution of the Year III of the Republic (1795) With the foreign invaders vanquished and the Reign of Terror at an end, the Convention was finally able to inaugurate its new constitution Constitution of the Year III of the Republic (1795) created the Directory What were the key features of the Constitution of the Year III (1795)? on p141

12 AS History Matters AS History Matters Government under the Directory 5 directors appointed by the Legislature Executive Lower house (500 members) proposed laws Upper house (250 members) voted on these laws 2/3 of the Legislature would initially be filled by members of the Convention Legislature Girondists (middle-class party) had defeated the Jacobins (working- and peasant-class party) Girondists’ constitution stated that suffrage (the right to vote), as well as the right to hold office, were limited to property owners Qualifications

13 AS History Matters AS History Matters The Legislature The Council of Five Hundred, all of whom had to be over 30. This council could initiate legislation and then pass it on to the Council of Ancients The Council of Ancients, 250 men over the ages of 40 who would approve or reject bills, but could not introduce them or change them. The Executive The Executive was to be a Directory of 5 men. Chosen by the Council of Ancients from a list drawn up by the Council of Five Hundred. The five Directors would all hold office for five years, although one chosen at random would have to retire each year. They could not initiate or veto laws nor could they declare war. But they had considerable authority as they were in charge of diplomacy, military affairs and law enforcement. Make the laws & debate & Check the Executive behave The Govt – make the decisions ‘do’ the work

14 AS History Matters AS History Matters Other Parting Reforms Passed by the Convention Adopted the metric system Dealt the final blow to feudalism by abolishing primogeniture (the system whereby the oldest son inherited all of his father’s estate) Drew up a comprehensive system of laws Ended debt imprisonment Ended slavery in France’s colonies Established a nationwide system of public education

15 AS History Matters AS History Matters Directory (1795-1799) The Directory suffered from corruption and poor administration. The people of France grew poorer and more frustrated with their government. Despite, or perhaps because of, these struggles, the French developed a strong feeling of nationalism – they were proud of their country and devoted to it. National pride was fueled by military successes. It would be a military leader – Napoleon Bonaparte, coming to power through a coup d’état – who would end the ten-year period (1789- 1799) known as the French Revolution.

16 AS History Matters AS History Matters R E V I E WR E V I E W 1.What was the impact of the economic crisis? 2.What was the significance of the rising of Prairial? 3.What was the motivation behind the White Terror? 4.What did the Thermidorians hope to achieve in a new constitution?

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