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Mary Lou McCloskey TESOL 2012 Lydia Stack Philadelphia PA Handouts: www.mlmcc.com 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Mary Lou McCloskey TESOL 2012 Lydia Stack Philadelphia PA Handouts: www.mlmcc.com 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mary Lou McCloskey TESOL 2012 Lydia Stack Philadelphia PA Handouts: 1

2 Goals  Focus on vocabulary development for long-term English Learners  Background on vocabulary development  Key effective strategies  Experience using the strategies  Discussion 2

3 Principles for working with long- term English Learners  Start where learners are  Build on what they know  Make the classroom experience comprehensible  Make the classroom experience meaningful and motivational 3

4 Best Practices  Interest in and concern for individuals  Awareness of differences in background and proficiency  Awareness that language and content are integrated  Awareness of the need to frequently check comprehension  Awareness of the value of choice independent reading 4

5 Vocabulary Essentials Outline: A. Knowledge about vocabulary:  What is vocabulary?  What does it mean to know a word?  What words should we learn? B. 6 elements of a successful vocabulary program D. 6 Effective vocabulary teaching practices and strategies 5

6 6

7 Words (General Service List) the be of and a to in he have it that for they I with as not on she at 7

8 Word families BLACK  blacker  blackest  blackly  blacken  blackness  blacks  blackish HOPE  hoped  hopeful  hopeless  hopelessness  hopes  hoping 8

9 Idioms back seat driver back to basics back to square 1 baker's dozen bad hair day ball and chain big apple blind leading the blind blue moon blue sky break a leg brownie points 9

10 Phrasal verbs call off call on calm down catch on catch up (with) check in (to) check off check out (of) check out cheer up chew out chicken out chip in clam up come across come down with come to 10

11 What does it mean to learn a word?  Multiple meanings mixing bowl, go bowling, bowled over, superbowl  Multiple forms cut, cuts, cutting, undercut, haircut, shortcut  Collocations (give/make) a suggestion (take/make) a telephone call (do/make) an attempt (win/beat) a match  Grammatical patterns an apple, some flour  Constraints on use (register) 11

12 Multiple meanings. Multiple forms, and Collocations of Run I hate it when my nose runs, because I always run out of cold medicine and I have to run out for more. Plus I run the risk of catching pneumonia and I feel too run-down to go for my daily run. One time I ran to the pharmacy in my hybrid (you know it runs on both gasoline and electricity -- and it really runs like a charm!). I also needed to run by the office to run off some copies. Anyway, it was raining so hard the rain was running off the roof so my jacket got all wet in the rain and the colors ran. 12

13 Multiple meanings. Multiple forms, and Collocations of Run Then I tripped on the wet sidewalk (I really think clumsiness runs in my family) and got a run in my stocking and had to change it so I was running late and then I discovered I’d run low on gas. I was so nervous I ran a red light and ran right into a Lincoln Navigator. The guy I ran into was that baseball player who scored a winning home run for the Braves last Saturday. When I told my kids, they were so impressed that I was running around with a celebrity -- even if what I really did was run across – or was it run into him. But I do run on… 13

14 What words need to be learned?  Frequent words wheremuchshould wellpeopledownown justbecause  Academic words analyze context define economy formula require similar source  Essential words for topic/content biosphere photosynthesis decomposer nitrogen fixation transpiration food web 14

15 15

16 Estimates about the number of words a learner needs to know  Webster’s 3 rd has about 54,000 word families ( words!).  A native speaker knows about word families at the start of school at age 5  Native speakers add about 1200 word families a year.  A high school graduate knows about 11,000 word families; university graduate knows at least 20,000 word families.  Can we possibly teach all these words? 16

17 NO! We must:  Choose important words to teach directly and thoroughly.  Help learners to develop their skills in solving words on their own.  Make sure students are widely and richly exposed to words through  instructional conversations,  read aloud, and  free choice reading. 17

18 Knowing High- frequency words can get learners a long way WordsText coverage % % % % % % 15, % 18

19 West List: General Service List of 2000 Word Families Word 300: CARE  cared  careful  carefully  careless  cares  caring  carelessly 19

20 Estimating vocabulary 20

21  570 word families  Not on the first 2000 list  Words used frequently across a variety of academic content areas (arts, commerce, law and science) 21

22 Jim Burke’s Academic Word List 22

23 High-Frequency Academic Words  Many “academic words” are high- frequency words used in a different sense, e.g.  table  average  square  column 23

24 Portable Words  May be AWL words like symptom or prevalence  May also be useful phrases, like In my opinion…, I agree that…, or “According to…”  May be language that helps studens participate in the classroom and get help, like Could you please say that again? I have a question about… 24

25 Selecting Vocabulary: Places to start  First 100, 500, 1000 words  Words, phrases and patterns for instructions and management  Words for age-level content  Words to teach reading patterns  Words for content learners read  Words to talk about content  Words to meet specifications and standards  Words learners want/need to know 25

26 Sentence Frames  When we ask a question, we should be sure we’ve provided the language needed to answer it. Often useful to provide a frame for the answer, expecially if you’re looking for a sentence.  What is something that is about 1 meter long?  __________is about 1 meter high.  The distance from ______________ to _______________is about one meter. 26

27 Activity: Sentence Frame  Think of a type of question you frequently ask in your class.  Write a sentence frame that supports learners in answering that question. 27

28 B. Elements of a successful vocabulary program? We must: 1. Expand exposure through speaking, listening, writing and choice reading 2. Develop word awareness 3. Teach important words directly 4. Analyze and explore words 5. Build learner control 6. Practice and apply new words 28

29 What doesn’t work for long-term ELLs?  Guessing words from context  Teaching vocabulary in semantic sets  Teaching too much at a time  Teaching too much too soon  Exposure only, without opportunities to use and apply the language learned 29

30 Teaching Lexical Sets: The Metric System  30

31 Teaching Meaningful Concepts  How long is a meter? What might be a meter long?  What if we want to measure something small, like a paper clip? How many meters long is a paper clip? …A grain of salt? …An atom?... 31

32 How do we remember words? What we learn from memory research: Learners must notice words They must process words deeply They must have repeated, spaced retrieval of the words 32

33 How is vocabulary best learned? In active, interactive ways:  Teach important words directly and interactively  Analyze and explore words  Build learner control  Expand exposure 33

34 Learners Need…  Comprehensible input (oral and written  Connection to their own experience  Repetition, in context, with variation  Vocabulary in meaningful, purposeful, relevant context – like stories, games, and activities, and in the context of content learning  Focused attention on vocabulary  Fluency development 34

35 Practices for Total Engagement  Wait time  Fairness Can  Slates  Numbered Heads 35

36 Vocabulary Development Practices and Activities  Teaching Vocabulary Directly  Build Word Awareness  Vocabulary Journals  Semantic Mapping  Word Wall  Word Squares  Sentence Machine  Word Sort  Conga Line  I have, who has? 36

37 Teaching Vocabulary Directly: “Rich” Vocabulary Instruction (Beck 2003)  contextualizing each target word  providing student friendly explanations  giving many examples  asking learners to provide their own examples  posting & using the target words 37

38 Building Word Awareness: Names  What is your name?  What does it mean?  Where does the word come from?  Why are you named that?  What are the sounds in your name?  Are there other words like your name?  Is anyone else’s name in the room like your name?  How do you feel when someone says your name wrong? 38

39 Sample Vocabulary Journal Entry WordMy definition How used in reading My sentence/ pictures drowsysleepyHe felt drowsy after the meal. When I stay up late, I am drowsy in the morning 39

40 Paper First Materials Why Important Uses Who Ts’ai Lun from China writing To communicate Record Ideas clay bark Semantic Mapping drawing wrapping things 40

41 41

42 Word Square 42

43 Sentence Machine  In groups, learners develop questions in response to a text.  Groups send a representative to be in the “sentence machine.”  Learners ask questions of the machine.  The machine answers in sentences, with each person providing one word in turn.  Teacher and peers mediate the formation of sentences. 43

44 Word Sort for the people by the people of the people in vain score endure perish hallow consecrate engaged conceived proposition nobly add detract devotion dedicate 44

45 Conga Line  Learners prepare (and teacher confirms) vocabulary cards with words and definitions.  They stand in two lines, each facing a partner.  Partners teach each other their words.  At a signal from the teacher, partners exchange lines.  One line moves one person forward, with the first person going to the end.  The new pair repeats the activity. 45

46 I have / who has?  Create review set of questions and answers. (See example.)  Pass out all the cards.  Have learnersdiscuss/look up the terms they have to make sure they understand them.  Play the game by having the first person ask who has…  Continue play till all cards are matched.  Exchange cards and play again, trying for a faster time. 46

47 3 – 2 – 1 Summary 3 Practices/Activities for developing vocabulary that you found valuable 2 Principles for developing language that you want to remember 1 Burning question that still remains 47

48 48 Thank you!

49 49

50 Attending to vocabulary – directing learners’ attention to what is important. Providing:  Word Awareness  Depth of processing  Elaboration with repeated, spaced retrieval 50

51 Names  What is your name?  What does it mean?  Where does the word come from?  Why are you named that?  Are there other words like your name?  Is anyone else’s name in the room like your name? 51

52 Focusing on important words  First 2000 words  Academic word list  Specific words for context 52

53 “Rich” Vocabulary Instruction (Beck 2003)  contextualizing each target word  providing student friendly explanations  giving many examples  asking learners to provide their own examples  posting & using the target words 53

54 Beginners: Using Predictable Books, Chants, and Rhymes  Model  Demonstrate  Include actions/hands-on features  Have learners practice  Revisit often  Use vocabulary for teaching skills  Encourage learners to improvise 54

55 Activity: Food and Drink Chant Hana likes rice Kwan likes beets Mi Cha likes ice cream We all like sweets! I like rice I like beets I like ice cream We all like sweets! Shin likes lemon Hyo likes tea, Yong Sun likes milk They all like me! I like lemon I like tea I like my friends and My friends like me! 55

56 Word Webs/Semantic Maps  Provide access to higher level thinking and content structures/schema  Focus attention on key words, relationships, and ideas.  Examine and categorize parts of the word, examples, meanings, and importance 56

57 Paper First Materials Why Important Uses Who Ts’ai Lun from China writing To communicate Record Ideas clay bark Web drawing wrapping things 57

58 58

59 C. Six Steps for Direct Teaching of Vocabulary 1. Explain the word. 2. Have learners demonstrate understanding. 3. Show the written word and write the word in vocabulary journal 4. Discuss the word 5. Reflect and refine meaning in journal 6. Apply in learning games and activities. 59

60 Step 1: Explain the word  Explain, pronounce, describe  Show a picture if appropriate  Use context that relates to learners  No need to present all the meanings the first time.  Translate; make connections to cognates  Learners say the word, tap out syllables… 60

61 Explaining the word 61

62 Step 2: Learners Demonstrate Understanding  Point to the word  Hold up card  Give thumbs up or thumbs down. 62

63 2. Demonstrating Understanding  What day was previous to today?  What word is previous in alphabetical order, hammer or height?  Why might a detective want to know about previous events?  Which new word does before make you think of? Previous 63

64 2. Demonstrating Understanding  Would you prefer to hire a teacher with previous experience?  Would you trade for a player who hit 300 the previous year?  Does previous mean prior or before?  Does previous mean small? Previous 64

65 Step 3: Show and write the word. Previous Sunday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

66 Step 3. Show and Write the Word  Learners make a picture or symbol  Write meaning in vocabulary journal  Use word square, word circle, semantic map, or other graphic organizer. 66

67 Step 4. Discuss the word Provide examples of the word used in several different contexts – moving from familiar to new  What do you think? Does this look like a good site for a picnic?  The beavers found the right site on the creek to build a new dam.  Sharon Creech has a really cool website.  Seoul is the site of the Gyeongbokgung Palace 67

68 Step 4: Discuss the word (continued)  Discuss forms of the word: Hope, hopes, hopeless  Discuss parts of the word:  contra dict tion (against) (speak) (noun ending)  Discuss how the word is used and not used We make a mess, we don’t do a mess.  Learners think about the word and add information to their vocabulary journals 68

69 Step 5. Reflect and refine meaning in Journal  Students choose important new words and concepts they are learning and record them  Students learn and remember new words in context 69

70 Step 5: Sample journal entry WordMy definition How used in reading My sentence/ pictures drowsysleepyHe felt drowsy after the meal. When I stay up late, I am drowsy in the morning 70

71 71

72 Step 6. Apply in learning games and activities Move from less to more demanding Many, varied encounters with the word. Active, interactive learning  I HAVE / WHO HAS ?  W ORD S ORT  C ONGA L INE  S ENTENCE M ACHINE  G ROUCHO ’ S MAGIC BIRD 72

73 Sentence Machine 73

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76 Root Words  Students learn high-frequency roots from the Latin or Greek root list  Students collect words with the roots and learn their meanings 76

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78 Activity: Match roots and meanings CENTfootPEDwrite eightFRACTthrowEQU OCTbreak SCRIB/ SCRIBE see same, even VIShundredJECT 78

79 Answer Key CENTfootPEDwrite eightFRACTthrowEQU OCTbreak SCRIB/ SCRIBE see same, even VIShundredJECT 79

80 Explore how words are used  Strong coffee, not powerful coffee  A powerful computer, not a strong computer.  Hello! to the director or visitor.  Hi! to your friends. 80

81 Prefixes lesson, Journeys, Grade 2 81

82 82

83 Using the Word Wall  Use words children have learned  Interact frequently with the wall  Organize and re-organize words  Perform word sorts – by word beginning, word ending, rhymes, meanings, type of word, etc. 83

84 84

85 Supporting learners in taking control of their own vocabulary learning.  Planning and organizing learning  Choosing words to learn  Encouragement to expand exposure through reading, listening, writing, speaking beyond class 85

86 New Word Decision- Making Flow Chart 86

87 Individual Vocabulary Lists  Keep a vocabulary notebook  Select set of words to learn  Use study activity with words throughtout the week  Peers assess each other at the end of the week.  Alternate: 3 levels of words 87

88 Frayer Model Vocabulary Cards  Help students understand concepts and words by showing both examples and non-examples of words or concepts 88

89 Frayer Card MAMMALS Definition -a type of vertebrate Characteristic s -warm blooded -produce milk Examples -human -monkey Non-examples -rooster -fish 89

90 Activity: Frayer Card  With your partner, make a Freyer card for this word: Prejudice DefinitionCharacteristics ExamplesNon-examples 90

91 Groucho’s Secret Word 91

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94 Word Sort  First, target key words and phrases from a passage  Then have the students sort the words and phrases into categories that make sense to them.  Have them tell why they have clustered the words and phrases as they did.  Next, have them group the words/phrases into partner pairs and make a statement that explains the connection. 94

95 -ee words tree bee see fee feed weed -ea words that Say ee pea sea flea lead -y words that say ee happy baby candy lovely -e words that say ee be me he 95

96 Activity: Word Sort  Work with your elbow buddy  Sort the words on the following slides into categories of your choosing  At the signal, share your list/s with a second pair.  Note: The words are all from Abraham Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” 96

97 Possible categories  Word features, e.g., roots, endings  Word strength  Positive/negative words  Synonyms/antonyms  Parts of speech  97

98 Word Sort for the people by the people of the people in vain score endure perish hallow consecrate engaged conceived proposition nobly add detract devotion dedicate 98

99 Word Sort: Parts of Speech for the people by the people of the people in vain score endure perish hallow consecrate engaged conceived proposition nobly add detract devotion dedicate 99

100 Word Sort: Synonyms & Antonyms in vain endure perish nobly add detract consecrate dedicate 100

101 Write Sentences combining words in a category  The world will not endure but will perish if we don’t stop pollution.  Because of his devotion he made a proposition that they get engaged. 101

102 102

103 Read Aloud  Builds listening and comprehension skills  Increases vocabulary foundation  Improves memory and language skills  Provides information about the world around them.  Develops learners’ interests, imagination, creativity 103

104 Free Voluntary Reading  Improves reading, writing, spelling, vocabulary for all ages  Leads to more reading  Is enjoyed by students who participate  Decreases writing apprehension  Is encouraged by access to books  Often starts with narrow reading, then expands Krashen, The Power of Reading. 104

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106 Pair-Share: Which strategies demonstrate?  Predictable books & chants  Word wall  Word families  Root words  Frayer model  Personal word journal  Word web  Word sort  Rich vocabulary learning  Direct teaching with 6 steps  Read aloud & discussion  Free voluntary reading notice words and word qualities process words deeply repeated, spaced retrieval of the words 106

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108 References  Allen, J. (2007). Inside words: Tools for teaching academic vocabulary, grades Portland, ME: Stenhouse.  Cobb, T. The compleat lexical tutor.  Cobb, T. Text Concordancer.  Coxhead, A. The Academic Word List.  Folse, K. (2004). Vocabulary myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.  IdiomSite. Part of the Bored.com network.  Nation, I.S.P. (Ed.) (1994). New ways in teaching Vocabulary. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.  Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  Phrasal Verb List: 108

109  Jim Burke’s Academic Word List: academicvocab.pdf academicvocab.pdf 109


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