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CHAPTER 7.  OSSEUS  CARTILAGE  DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE  BLOOD  NERVOUS TISSUE.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 7.  OSSEUS  CARTILAGE  DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE  BLOOD  NERVOUS TISSUE."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 7

2  OSSEUS  CARTILAGE  DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE  BLOOD  NERVOUS TISSUE

3  ORGANS:  BONES

4  SUPPORT AND PROTECT  MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS  HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE  STORE INORGANIC SALTS (CALCIUM)

5  LONG BONES  SHORT BONES  Cube like: width and length similar  FLAT BONES  IRREGUALR BONES  Variety  SESAMOID BONES  Round; Embeded in tendons

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8 Every bump, groove, and hole has a name on your bones

9  Two types of bone markings:  Projections (aka processes) that grow out from the bone  Depressions (cavities) that indent the bone

10  1) Condyle: Rounded articular projection Condyle

11  2) Head: bony expansion on a narrow neck  3) Facet: smooth, nearly flat articular surface

12  4) Ramus: Armlike bar of bone

13 1) Crest: Narrow ridge of bone (Line: smaller than a crest) 2) Epicondyle: Raised area on or above a condyle ULNA

14 3) Tubercle: Small rounded projection 4) Tuberosity: large rounded or roughened projection 5) Trochanter: very large, blunt projection (only on femur) Proximal Tibia

15 6) Spine: Sharp, pointed projection Thoracic Vertebrae

16  Allow blood vessels or nerves to pass through. 1) Meatus: (me - A- tus) Canal or tube

17 2) Fossa: shallow basin 3) Fissure: narrow, slit- like opening

18 4) Sinus: Cavity within a bone; filled with air and lined with mucous membranes 5) Foramen: Round or oval opening Foramen Magnum

19 6) Sulcus, Groove or Furrow: a shallow depression

20 Projections 1) Condyle 2) Head 3) Facet 4) Ramus 5) Crest 6) Epicondyle 7) Tubercle 8) Tuberosity 9) Trochanter 10) Spine Depressions 1) Meatus 2) Fossa 3) Fissure 4) Sinus 5) Sulcus or Groove or Furrow

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24 INTRAMEMBRANOUS BONES WITHIN SHEET LIKE LAYERS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE ENDOCHONDRAL BONES MASSES OF CARTILAGE REPLACED BY BONE TISSUE

25 MEMBRANE-LIKE LAYERS OF UNDIFFERENTIATED CONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH DENSE SUPPLY OF BLOOD VESSELS PROGENITOR CELLS ENLARGE AND DIFFERENTIATE INTO BONE FORMING CELLS: OSTEOBLASTS OSTEOBLASTS FORM BONY NMATRIX WHICH RESULTS IN SPONGY BONE SPONGY BONE MAY FORM COMPACT BONE LATER ONCE CELL IS COMPLETELY SUROUNDED BY BONY MATRIX (LACUNAE) IT IS A OSTEOCYTE PERIOSTEUM FORMS; COMPACT BONE FORMS OUTSIDE OF SPONGY BONE

26 MASS OF HYALINE CARTILAGE CARTILAGE CELLS ENLARGE AND GROW MATRIX BREAKS DOWN, CELLS DIE AND DEGENERATE PERIOSTEUM FORMS BLOOD VESSELS AND PARTIALLY DIFFERENTIATE CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS INVADE FORM OSTEOBLASTS WHICH FORM SPONGY BONE COMPACT BONE FORMS UNDER PERIOSTEUM BECOME OSTEOCYTES WHEN SURROUNDED BY BONY MATRIX

27 PRIMARY CENTERS OF OSSIFICATION IN CENTER OF DIAPHYSIS SECONDARY CENTERS OF OSSIFICATION IN EPIPHYSIS

28 4 LAYERS OF CARTILAGINOUS CELLS ZONE OF RESTING CARTILAGE: NEAR END OF EPIPHYSIS; JUST RESTING CELLS ZONE OF PROLIFERATING CARTILAGE; YOUNG MITOTIC CELLS: LENGTHENS PLATE ZONE OF HYPERTROPHIC CARTILAGE: OLDER CELLS PUSHED OUT, START TO DIE, OSTEOBLASTS CALCIFIES MATRIX ZONE OF CALCIFIED CARTILAGE: DEAD CELLS & CALCIFIED MATRIX OSTEOCLASTS BREAK DOWN CALCIFIED MATRIX USING AND ACID TO DISSOLVE INORGANIC PORTIONS AND LYSOSOMAL ENZYMES TO DIGEST ORGANIC PORTIONS OSTEOBLASTS INVADE AND LAY DOWN BONY MATRIX LENGTHENS UNTIL COMPLETELY OSSIFIED OSTEOBLASTS ON AT PERIOSTEUM THICKEN BONE WHILE OSTEOCLASTS AT ENDOSTEUM FORMING MEDULLARY CAVITY WHICH FILLS WITH MARROW

29 BONE REMODLEING: OSTEOBLASTS VS. OSTEOCLASTS OSTEOBLASTS FORM: DEPOSITION OSTEOCLASTS BREAK DOWN: RESORPTION 3%-5% EXCHANGED PER YEAR BUT USUALLY REMAINS CONSTANT

30 NUTRITION SUNLIGHT HORMONAL SECRETIONS PHYSICAL EXERCISE

31 VITAMIN D: FOR PROPER ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM FROM EGGS AND FORTIFIED MILK, ETC. FROM DEHYDROCHOLESTEROL: CARRIED TO SKIN WHERE SUN CONVERTS IT TO VITAMIN D VITAMIN A: NEEDED BY OSTEOBLASTS AND OSTEOCLASTS DURING NORMAL ACTIVITY VITAMIN C: NEEDED FOR COLLAGEN SYNTHESIS; OSTEOBLASTS COULDN’T PRODUCE COLLAGEN

32 HORMONES FROM PITUITARY GLAND, THYROID GLAND, PARATHYROID GLANDS, AND OVARIES OR TESTES PITUITARY: GH: STIMULATES CARTILAGE CELLS OF EPIPHYSEAL PLATE TO DIVIDE PITUITARY DWARFISM; PITUITARY GIANTISM/ACROMEGALY THYROID: THYROXINE: STIMULATES REPLACEMENT OF CARTILAGE BY OSSEUS TISSUE STIMULATES OSTEOBLASTS ACTIVITY PARATHYROID: PTH: STIMULATES INCREASE IN NUMBER AND ACTIVITY OF OSTEOCLASTS OVARIES/TESTES: AT PUBERTY: ESTROGEN AND TESTOSTERONE: STIMULATE GROWTH OSSIFICATION OF EPIPHYSEAL PLATE; ESTROGEN IS STRONGER

33 MUSCLE PULLING ON BONE CAUSES STRESS WHICH CAUSES BONE TO GROW AND THICKEN

34 HOW WIDE GAP IS CASTS SCREWS, NAILS, WIRE, RODS HYBRID FIXATOR ARMS FASTER THAN LEGS; YOUNGER PEOPLE HEAL FASTER THAN OLDER

35 BREAK: BLODD VESSELS RUPTURE: HEMATOMA; INFLAMATION NEW BLOOD VESSELS DEVELOP FROM PERIOSTEUM OSTEOBLASTS MIGRATE IN AND DIVIDE OSTEOCLASTS REMOVE BONE FRAGMENTS AND DEBRIS FIBROCARTILAGE FILLS GAP: CARTILAGINOUS CALLUS CALLUS IS REPLACED BY BONE LIKE IN ENDOCHONDRAL BONE OSSIFICATION; OSTEOBLASTS FORM BONY CALLUS EXCESS BONE IS GENERALLY PRODUCED: REMOVED BY OSTEOCLASTS

36 SHAPE:

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39 CHAPTER 9

40  EMBRYO:  YOLK SAC  LATER:  LIVER AND SPLEEN  LATER:  BONE MARROW

41  RED AND YELLOW  YELLOW  STORES FAT  RED  FORMS BLOOD CELLS (HEMOGLOBIN)  LOCATION:  INFANT:  MOST CAVITIES ARE RED  WITH AGE:  MOST REPLACED BY YELLOW  ADULT:  RED IN SPONGY BONE OF:  SKUILL, RIB, STERNUM, CLAVICLES, VERTEBRAE, PELVIC ******IF DEFICIENT SUPPLY SOME YELLOW CAN REVERT TO RED

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43  70% OF EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX BY WEIGHT  MOSTLY SMALL CRYSTALS OF HYDROXYAPATITE (CALCIUM PHOSPHATE)  CLACIUM NEEDED FOR: MUSCLE CONTRACTION; NERVE IMPULSE CONDUCTION; CLOTTING; MORE!  HOMEOSTASIS!!!  PTH vs. CALCITONIN (CHAPTER 13) ALSO STORES: MAGNESIUM, SODIUM, POTASSIUM, CARBONATE IONS ACCUMULATE TOXINS: LEAD, RADIUM, STRONTIUM,

44 2206 BONES EEXTRA: WORMIAN, SESAMOID

45  FONTANELS: SOFT SPOTS  MOLDING  CLOSE STARTING AT 2 MONTHS UP TO 2 YEARS  MORE FLEXIBLE: LESS EASILY FRACTURED

46  TYPES: BREAKFAST-LUNCH-SUPPER  CURVATURES:  PRIMARY:  AT BIRTH  THORACIC  SACRAL  SECONDARY  CERVICAL?  HOLDING HEAD UP AND SITTING  LUMBAR?  WALKING

47  ILIUM  ISCHIUM  PUBIS

48  DECREASE IN HEIGHT:  30: 1/16 YEAR; COMPRESSION FRACTURES LATER; LOSS OF CALCIUM:  WEAKEN; BRITTLE; MORE FRACUTRES MORE OSTEOCLASTS:  MORE SPACES; THINNNER LESS PROTEIN:  MORE BRITTLE LOSS OF BONE MASS: 35

49  SPONGY BONE AFFECTED FIRST (35)  VERTEBRAE, FEMUR; FRACTURES  COMPACT (40)  I/2 THE RATE OF SPONGY; GAPS BETWEEN OSTEONS  BONE LOSS  MEN: SLOW AND STEADY  WOMEN: HORMONE LOSS; AFTER MENOPAUSE: SPONGY LOSS 2-3X FASTER; COMPACT LOSS 3-4X FASTER  BY 70: FEMALES ½ THE BONE OF 20’ S ; MALES 1/3 LESS

50  INCREASED FRACTURES  HEALING SLOWS, PAIN PERSISTS  PREVENTION:  DON’T FALL  CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS  VITAMIN D  AVOID CARBONATED DRINKS (PHOSPHATE)  EXERCISE

51 today_health/t/rare-disease-turns--year-olds-muscles- bone/ FIBRODYSPLASIA OSSIFICANS PROGRESSIVA(FOP)


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