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GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Key words Stimulate, Inhibit, Womb, Mature, FSH, LH, Oestrogen, Progesterone.

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Presentation on theme: "GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Key words Stimulate, Inhibit, Womb, Mature, FSH, LH, Oestrogen, Progesterone."— Presentation transcript:

1 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Key words Stimulate, Inhibit, Womb, Mature, FSH, LH, Oestrogen, Progesterone

2 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Objectives By the end of the lesson I: Can explain the role of FSH, LH, and oestrogen in the menstrual cycle Explain how each of the hormones affect each other Explain the role of FSH as a fertility drug

3 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Match up the key words with definitions Ovulation Menstrual cycle Oestrogen Progesterone Testosterone Follicle Release of egg cell from ovary 2 of 3 Female Sex hormone 28 day cycle controlled by hormones where lining of uterus is released. Fluid filled structure in which the ovum matures in the ovary Male sex hormone

4 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Cells in different parts of the body recognize the hormones and respond by making changes. hormone memo To: cells From: ovary Start puberty now! ovary hormone Hormones are chemicals that act like messengers. They are secreted by glands and carried in the blood from organ to organ.

5 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Where are the major glands of the body? thyroid adrenal glands testes (males) pituitary gland pancreas ovaries (females)

6 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Sex hormones In males, the testes produce the sex hormone testosterone, which makes male secondary sexual characteristics develop. In females, the ovaries produce the sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone. These make female secondary sexual characteristics develop and are involved in fertility and the menstrual cycle. testes (males) ovaries (females)

7 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology The pituitary gland The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland at the base of the brain. It releases many hormones and controls several other glands in the body. The pituitary gland produces two hormones involved in fertility: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) luteinizing hormone (LH). pituitary gland YOU MUST KNOW WHERE EACH OF THE FEMALE SEX HORMONESWHERE EACH OF THE FEMALE SEX HORMONES ARE PRODUCED WHAT EFFECT THEY HAVE ON EGG PRODUCTIONWHAT EFFECT THEY HAVE ON EGG PRODUCTION HOW EACH HORMONE AFFECTS THE PRODUCTIONHOW EACH HORMONE AFFECTS THE PRODUCTION OF THE OTHERS

8 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology

9 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology

10 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology IN SUMMARY HORMONEPRODUCEDEFFECT FSHPituitary gland Causes egg to mature Oestrogen to be produced OESTROGENOvaries Inhibits further production of FSH Stimulates production of LH Stimulate uterine lining to thicken ready for implantation LH PROGESTERONE Pituitary gland Ovaries Stimulates the mature egg to be released Stimulates the uterus to thicken ready for implantation Inhibits further production of LH When levels fall uterine lining breaks down

11 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Inside the ovary Day 1-13: egg developing inside the growing follicle Day 14: ovulation – egg released from follicle Day 15-28: empty follicle turns into corpus luteum (yellow body) immature eggs

12 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Uterus lining The lining of the uterus becomes thicker with blood vessels and more stable during the menstrual cycle. Why is this important? days after start of period uterus lining thickness period A fertilized egg will bury itself (implant) in the uterus lining. The egg needs a plentiful supply of oxygen and nutrients to develop.

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14 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Questions 1)Using your graph of the menstrual cycle i) Mark the letter A on the point where ovulation is most likely to take place ii) Mark the letter B where the female is most fertile iii) Mark the letter C where menstruation is most likely to occur

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16 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Pregnancy If the egg is fertilized, the uterus lining must not break down otherwise the fertilized egg will not develop. corpus luteum (structure that develops after the ovum is discharged but degenerates if no pregnancy): continues to produce progesterone and oestrogen egg fertilized: uterus lining maintained, egg implanted progesterone memo To: uterus From: corpus luteum Maintain uterus lining. oestrogen memo To: pituitary From: corpus luteum Don’t send FSH.

17 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology

18 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology

19 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology The role of Hormones in the menstrual cycle FSH released from pituitary gland. Produces follicle on ovary and stimulates egg to mature. LH released from pituitary. LH triggers ovulation (release of egg cell) Follicle secretes oestrogen. High oestrogen levels makes uterus lining thick and spongy and stops the release of FSH from pituitary If fertilisation occurs the yellow body will secrete progesterone, until placenta is formed and then takes over. If no fertilisation occurs yellow body disappears and progesterone levels decrease. This causes uterus lining to shed and menstruation occurs. Empty follicle (yellow body) secretes progesterone. Progesterone stops further ovulation and prevents shedding of uterus lining.

20 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Objectives By the end of the lesson I: Can explain the role of FSH, LH, and oestrogen in the menstrual cycle Explain how each of the hormones affect each other Explain the role of FSH as a fertility drug

21 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Key words Contraception, Fertility treatment

22 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Objectives By the end of the lesson I: Identify the issues involved in contraception and fertility Provide a two-sided argument for each of the issues Describe the role of hormones in oral contraceptives.

23 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Where is FSH produced? What effect does the production of oestrogen have on the production of FSH and LH? What does LH do? STARTER 1) Pituitary gland 2) Oestrogen inhibits the production of FSH and stimulates the production of LH 3) LH stimulates the release of the mature egg from the ovary

24 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology progesterone memo To: pituitary From: contraceptive pill Stop sending FSH. Contraceptive pills contain progesterone and need to be taken every day. How do they work? no FSH received: no egg maturing Contraceptive pills mimic pregnancy, which means that the ovaries do not produce any eggs.

25 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology What is infertility? Some couples are unable to conceive naturally. This is called infertility. What might be some of the causes of infertility? ovaries not releasing eggs blocked fallopian tubes (carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus) problems with the uterus lining low sperm count poor quality sperm blocked or damaged tubes that carry sperm MenWomen hormonal problems

26 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology How do fertility drugs work? FSH memo To: ovary From: fertility drug Get another egg ready and start making oestrogen. Fertility drugs are used to help women who do not produce an egg every month. There are many different types of fertility drug but they all work by tricking the body into producing more eggs. Some fertility drugs contain FSH. How do these work?

27 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology What is IVF? In vitro is Latin for ‘in glass’ so IVF means fertilization that takes place outside of the body and in laboratory glassware. Babies born by IVF are sometimes called ‘test-tube’ babies. However, fertilization doesn’t take place in test-tubes but in a special dish. Sometimes, women have problems becoming pregnant even after using fertility drugs. When this happens, they can try in vitro fertilization, or IVF.

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29 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology IVF and multiple births Why does IVF increase the chances of multiple births?

30 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Multiple births are more likely with IVF because more than one embryo is implanted into the uterus to increase the chance of a successful pregnancy. Multiple births are the biggest risk of IVF for both the mother and babies. They are more likely to result in premature births, miscarriages, and long-term disability and ill health. Around 20% of IVF births are twins (compared with 1.25% of normal births), and 0.5% are triplets. The number of triplets was much higher years ago because more embryos were implanted at the same time.

31 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology The cost of IVF About 25% of IVF treatments are funded by the NHS. Women aged between 23 and 39 years can get one free IVF cycle on the NHS. IVF is expensive – around £3,000 for the treatment itself, plus extra costs for consultation with doctors, drugs and tests. Freezing embryos for further attempts at IVF also costs extra. Couples may need to try IVF several times (each attempt is called a cycle) before it is successful.

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33 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Questions 2) Women that find it difficult to have children take FSH as part of their fertility treatment. i)Explain how FSH can help women to get pregnant. ii)Explain why it is common for women that have this treatment to have multiple births? iii)The contraceptive pill is given to women to prevent pregnancy

34 GCSE Core ScienceHuman Biology Objectives By the end of the lesson I: Identify the issues involved in contraception and fertility Provide a two-sided argument for each of the issues Describe the role of hormones in oral contraceptives.


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