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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology, 10e Tarbuck & Lutgens
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Convergent Boundaries: Origin of Mountains Earth, 10e - Chapter 14 Stan Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mountain Building Mountain building has occurred during the recent geologic past. American Cordillera—the western margin of the Americas from Cape Horn to Alaska, which includes the Andes and Rocky Mountains The Alpine–Himalaya chain The mountainous terrains of the western Pacific
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mountain Building Older Paleozoic- and Precambrian-age mountains The Appalachians The Urals in Russia Orogenesis is the processes that collectively produces a mountain belt. Includes folding, thrust faulting, metamorphism, and igneous activity
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mountain Building Several hypotheses have been proposed for the formations of Earth’s mountain belts. With the development of plate tectonics, it appears that most mountain building occurs at convergent plate boundaries.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth’s Major Mountain Belts
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Convergence and Subducting Plates Major features of subduction zones Deep-ocean trench—a region where subducting oceanic lithosphere bends and descends into the asthenosphere Volcanic arc—built upon the overlying plate – Island arc if on the ocean floor or – Continental volcanic arc if oceanic lithosphere is subducted beneath a continental block
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Convergence and Subducting Plates Major features of subduction zones The forearc region is the area between the trench and the volcanic arc. The backarc region is located on the side of the volcanic arc opposite the trench.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Convergence and Subducting Plates Dynamics at subduction zones Extension and backarc spreading – As the subducting plate sinks, it creates a flow in the asthenosphere that pulls the upper plate toward the trench. – Tension and thinning may produce a backarc basin.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Convergence and Subducting Plates Dynamics at subduction zones Compressional regimes – Occurs when the overlying plate advances toward the trench faster than the trench is retreating due to subduction – The resulting compressional forces shorten and thicken the crust.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Subduction and Mountain Building Island arc mountain building Where two ocean plates converge and one is subducted beneath the other Volcanic island arcs result from the steady subduction of oceanic lithosphere. – Continued development can result in the formation of mountainous topography consisting of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Aleutian Volcanic Island Arc
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Subduction and Mountain Building Andean-type mountain building Mountain building along continental margins Involves the convergence of an oceanic plate and a plate whose leading edge contains continental crust – Exemplified by the Andes Mountains
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Subduction and Mountain Building Andean-type mountain building Building a volcanic arc – Subduction and partial melting of mantle rock generate primary magmas. – Magma is less dense than surrounding rock, so it begins to buoyantly rise. – Differentiation of magma produces andesitic volcanism dominated by pyroclastics and lavas.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Subduction and Mountain Building Andean-type mountain building Emplacement of plutons – Thick continental crust impedes the ascent of magma. – A large percentage of the magma never reaches the surface and is emplaced as plutons. – Uplift and erosion exposes these massive structures called batholiths (i.e., the Sierra Nevada in California and the Peruvian Andes) – Batholiths are typically intermediate to felsic compositions.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Andean-Type Plate Margin
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Subduction and Mountain Building Andean-type mountain building Development of an accretionary wedge – An accretionary wedge is a chaotic accumulation of deformed and thrust-faulted sediments and scraps of oceanic crust. – Prolonged subduction may thicken an accretionary wedge enough so that it protrudes above sea level. – Descending sediments are metamorphosed into a suite of high-pressure, low-temperature minerals.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Subduction and Mountain Building Andean-type mountain building Forearc basin – The growing accretionary wedge acts as a barrier to sediment movement from the arc to the trench. – This region of relatively undeformed layers of sediment and sedimentary rock is called a forearc basin.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Subduction and Mountain Building The Sierra Nevada and the Coast Ranges One of the best examples of an active Andean-type orogenic belt Subduction of the Pacific basin under the western edge of the North American plate The Sierra Nevada batholith is a remnant of a portion of the continental volcanic arc. The Franciscan Formation of California’s Coast Ranges constitutes the accretionary wedge.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mountains and Landforms of the Western United States
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Collisions Two lithospheric plates, both carrying continental crust Continental collisions result in the development of compressional mountains that are characterized by shortened and thickened crust. Most compressional mountains exhibit a region of intense folding and thrust faulting called a fold-and-thrust belt. The zone where the two continents collide is called the suture.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Features of a Compressional Mountain Belt
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Collisions The Himalayan Mountains Youthful mountains—collision began about 45 million years ago. India collided with Eurasian plate. Similar but older collision occurred when the European continent collided with the Asian continent to produce the Ural Mountains.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Formation of the Himalayas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Collisions The Appalachian Mountains Formed long ago and substantially lowered by erosion Resulted from a collision among North America, Europe, and northern Africa Final orogeny occurred about 250 million to 300 million years ago.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Collisions Compressional mountain belts have several major events. After the breakup of a continental landmass, a thick wedge of sediments is deposited along the passive continental margin. Due to a change in the direction of plate motion, the ocean basin begins to close and continents converge.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Collisions Compressional mountain belts have several major events. Plate convergence, subduction of the intervening oceanic slab, and extensive igneous activity Continental blocks collide. A change in the plate boundary ends the growth of mountains.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Terranes and Mountain Building Another mechanism of orogenesis The nature of terranes Small crustal fragments collide and merge with continental margins. Accreted crustal blocks are called terranes (any crustal fragments whose geologic history is distinct from that of the adjoining terranes).
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Terranes and Mountain Building The nature of terranes Prior to accretion, some of the fragments may have been microcontinents. Others may have been island arcs, submerged crustal fragments, extinct volcanic islands, or submerged oceanic plateaus.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Terranes and Mountain Building Accretion and orogenesis As oceanic plates move, they carry embedded oceanic plateaus, island arcs, and microcontinents to Andean-type subduction zones. Thick oceanic plates carrying oceanic plateaus or “lighter” igneous rocks of island arcs may be too buoyant to subduct.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Terranes and Mountain Building Accretion and orogenesis Collision of the fragments with the continental margin deforms both blocks, adding to the zone of deformation and to the thickness of the continental margin. Many of the terranes found in the North American Cordillera were once scattered throughout the eastern Pacific.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fault-Block Mountains Continental rifting can produce uplift and the formation of mountains known as fault- block mountains. Fault-block mountains are bounded by high-angle normal faults that flatten with depth. Examples include the Sierra Nevada of California and the Grand Tetons of Wyoming.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fault-Block Mountains Basin and Range Province One of the largest regions of fault-block mountains on Earth Tilting of these faulted structures has produced nearly parallel mountain ranges that average 80 kilometers in length. Extension beginning 20 million years ago has stretched the crust twice its original width.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fault-Block Mountains Basin and Range Province High heat flow and several episodes of volcanism provide evidence that mantle upwelling caused doming of the crust and subsequent extension.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Basin and Range Province
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Teton Range in Wyoming Are Fault-Block Mountains
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Vertical Movements of the Crust Isostasy Less dense crust floats on top of the denser and deformable rocks of the mantle. Concept of floating crust in gravitational balance is called isostasy. If weight is added or removed from the crust, isostatic adjustment will take place as the crust subsides or rebounds.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Principle of Isostasy
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Vertical Movements of the Crust Vertical motions and mantle convection Buoyancy of hot rising mantle material accounts for broad upwarping in the overlying lithosphere. Uplifting whole continents – Southern Africa – Crustal subsidence—regions once covered by ice during the last Ice Age
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. End of Chapter 14
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Convergent Boundaries: Origin of Mountains Earth, 10e - Chapter 14.
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11 Chapter 11 Mountain Building Orogenesis – factors that produce a mountain belt.
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Mountain Building - Orogenesis. Archimedes’ principle Fig –The mass of the water displaced by the block of material equals the mass of the whole.
Objectives Describe the elevation distribution of Earth’s surface. Crust-Mantle Relationships Explain isostasy and how it pertains to Earth’s mountains.
11.2B Folds, Faults, and Mountains Mountains, Plateaus, Domes and Basins.
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Objectives Describe the elevation distribution of Earth’s surface. Explain isostasy and how it pertains to Earth’s mountains. Describe how Earth’s crust.
The theory of plate tectonics states that the lithosphere is divided into 12 large sections (plates) and about 20 smaller ones. These plates ‘float’ on.
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EARTH SCIENCE. An Idea Before Its Time Continental Drift Wegener’s __________________ ________________________hypothesis stated that the continents.
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