Presentation on theme: "Objectives Describe the elevation distribution of Earth’s surface."— Presentation transcript:
1Objectives Describe the elevation distribution of Earth’s surface. Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsObjectivesDescribe the elevation distribution of Earth’s surface.Explain isostasy and how it pertains to Earth’s mountains.Describe how Earth’s crust responds to the addition and removal of mass.
2Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsEarth’s TopographyTopography is the variation in elevations of Earth’s crust.Topographic maps show differences in elevation on Earth’s surface.
3Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsEarth’s TopographyWhen Earth’s topography is plotted on a graph, a pattern in the distribution of elevations emerges. Most of Earth’s elevations cluster around two main ranges of elevation—0 to 1 km above sea level and 4 to 5 km below sea level.
4Earth’s Topography Continental crust Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsEarth’s TopographyContinental crustContinental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust, so it extends higher above Earth’s surface and deeper into the mantle than oceanic crust.
5Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsIsostasyThe displacement of the mantle by Earth’s continental and oceanic crust is a condition of equilibrium called isostasy.
6Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsIsostasyGravitational and seismic studies have detected thickened areas of continental material, called roots, that extend into the mantle below Earth’s mountain ranges.
7Isostasy Mountain roots Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsIsostasyMountain rootsA mountain range requires large roots to counter the enormous mass of the range above Earth’s surface.- like a tree.Continents and mountains are said to float on the mantle because they are less dense than the underlying mantle. They project into the mantle to provide the necessary buoyant support.
8Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsIsostasy and ErosionThe Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States formed hundreds of millions of years ago when the North American continent collided with Europe and Africa.
9Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsIsostasy and ErosionAs the Appalachian Mountains rose(was forming) above Earth’s surface, deep roots formed until isostatic equilibrium was achieved and the mountains were buoyantly supported. As peaks eroded, the mass decreased. This allowed the roots themselves to rise and eventually erode.
10Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsIsostasy and ErosionA balance between erosion and the decrease in the size of the roots will continue for hundreds of millions of years until the mountains disappear and the roots are exposed at the surface.
11Isostasy and Erosion (like ice floating in water) Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsIsostasy and Erosion (like ice floating in water)The slow process of the crust’s rising as the result of the removal of overlying material is called isostatic rebound.Erosion and rebound allows metamorphic rocks formed at great depths to rise to the top of mountain ranges such as the Appalachians.
12Isostasy and Erosion Seamounts Section 20.1Crust-Mantle RelationshipsIsostasy and ErosionSeamountsIndividual volcanic mountains produced by hot spots under the ocean floor are called seamounts. As a result of isostasy, the oceanic crust around these peaks displaces the underlying mantle until equilibrium is achieved.
13Objectives Identify orogenic processes. Section 20.2OrogenyObjectivesIdentify orogenic processes.Compare and contrast the different types of mountains that form along convergent plate boundaries.Explain how the Appalachian Mountains formed.
14Mountain Building at Convergent Boundaries Section 20.2OrogenyMountain Building at Convergent BoundariesOrogeny refers to all processes that form mountain ranges.Broad, linear regions of deformation commonly known as mountain ranges are also known in geology as orogenic belts.
15Mountain Building at Convergent Boundaries Section 20.2OrogenyMountain Building at Convergent BoundariesMost of Earth’s mountain ranges formed along plate boundaries.
161.Divergent-Boundary Mountains- ocean ridges. Section 20.3Other Types of Mountain Building1.Divergent-Boundary Mountains- ocean ridges.Underwater volcanic mountains known as ocean ridges form a continuous chain that snakes along Earth’s ocean floor for over 65,000 km.
17Divergent-Boundary Mountains Section 20.3Other Types of Mountain BuildingDivergent-Boundary MountainsAn ocean ridge is a broad, topographic high that forms as lithosphere bulges upward due to an increase in temperature along a divergent boundary.
182.Mountain Building at Convergent Boundaries Section 20.2Orogeny2.Mountain Building at Convergent BoundariesAt convergent plate boundaries, compressive forces squeeze the crust and cause intense deformation in the form of folding, faulting, metamorphism, and igneous intrusions.Interactions at each type of convergent boundary create different types of mountain ranges.
19Mountain Building at Convergent Boundaries Section 20.2OrogenyMountain Building at Convergent Boundariesa.Oceanic-oceanic convergenceConvergence between two oceanic plates results in the formation of individual volcanic peaks that make up an island arc complex.
20Mountain Building at Convergent Boundaries Section 20.2OrogenyMountain Building at Convergent Boundariesb.Oceanic-continental convergence- volcanic mountain ranges.At an oceanic-continental boundary, compression causes continental crust to fold and thicken. Igneous activity and metamorphism are also common along such boundaries.
21Mountain Building at Convergent Boundaries Section 20.2OrogenyMountain Building at Convergent Boundaries3.Continental-continental convergenceIntense folding and faulting along continental-continental boundaries produce folded mountains - highest mountain ranges on Earth.presence of marine sedimentary rock near the mountains’ summits.
22The Appalachian Mountains—A Case Study Section 20.2OrogenyThe Appalachian Mountains—A Case StudyGeologists have divided the Appalachians into several distinct regions. Each region is characterized by rocks that show different degrees of deformation.
23The Appalachian Mountains—A Case Study Section 20.2OrogenyThe Appalachian Mountains—A Case StudyThe early Appalachians (P.572, Fig 20.13)The tectonic history of the Appalachians began about 800 to 700 mya when ancestral1. North America separated from ancestral Africa along two divergent boundaries to form two oceans— the ancestral Atlantic Ocean and a shallow, marginal sea. A continental fragment was located between the two divergent boundaries.
242. 700-600 mya Atlantic ocean began to close , an island arc formed(Piedmont province) mya continental fragment (Blue Ridge province)attached to N.America.mya Island arc(Piedmont province) attached to N.America.mya Pangea forms, further compression results in the folded Valley and Ridge province.
25Section 20.3Other Types of Mountain BuildingObjectivesIdentify the processes associated with non-boundary mountains.Describe the mountain ranges that form along ocean ridges.Compare and contrast uplifted and fault-block mountains.
26Section 20.3Other Types of Mountain BuildingMountains on the ocean floor and some mountains on continents form through processes other than convergence.Review Vocabularynormal fault: a crack in Earth where the rock above the fault plane has dropped down
27Section 20.3Other Types of Mountain Building1.Uplifted MountainsUplifted mountains form when large sections of Earth’s crust are forced upward without much structural deformation.
28Section 20.3Other Types of Mountain BuildingUplifted MountainsWhen a whole region is uplifted, a relatively flat-topped area called a plateau can form.Erosion eventually carves these relatively undeformed, uplifted masses to form peaks, valleys, and canyons.
292.Fault-Block Mountains Section 20.3Other Types of Mountain Building2.Fault-Block MountainsFault-block mountains form between large faults when pieces of crust are tilted, uplifted, or dropped downward.