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Social cognition - eleven years after Social cognition - eleven years after Daniel Heller, Psychologický ústav AV ČR 10. konference „Sociální procesy a.

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Presentation on theme: "Social cognition - eleven years after Social cognition - eleven years after Daniel Heller, Psychologický ústav AV ČR 10. konference „Sociální procesy a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social cognition - eleven years after Social cognition - eleven years after Daniel Heller, Psychologický ústav AV ČR 10. konference „Sociální procesy a osobnost“ Telč, 13. a 14. září 2007 Telč, 13. a 14. září 2007

2 Social cognition - eleven years after Martha Augoustinos, Iain Walker: Martha Augoustinos, Iain Walker: Social Cognition: An Integrated Introduction. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, Reprinted: 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005 Martha Augoustinos, Iain Walker, Ngaire Donaghue: Martha Augoustinos, Iain Walker, Ngaire Donaghue: Social Cognition: An Integrated Introduction. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, social cognition - eleven years after social cognition - eleven years after

3 Social cognition - eleven years after Martha Augoustinos, Iain Martha Augoustinos, Iain Walker: Social Cognition: An Integrated Introduction. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, Reprinted: 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005

4 Social cognition - eleven years after Gordon B. Moskowitz: Gordon B. Moskowitz: Social Cognition: An Social Cognition: An Integrated Introduction. Integrated Introduction. London: Sage, London: Sage, 1995.

5 Social cognition - eleven years after Ziva Kunda: Ziva Kunda: Social Cognition: Social Cognition: Making Sense of People. Making Sense of People. London: Sage, London: Sage, 1999.

6 Ziva Kunda (* )

7 Social cognition - eleven years after Martha Augoustinos, Iain Martha Augoustinos, Iain Walker, Ngaire Donaghue: Walker, Ngaire Donaghue: Social Cognition: Social Cognition: An Integrated Introduction. An Integrated Introduction. London, Thousand Oaks, London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, New Delhi: Sage, 2006.

8 Martha Augoustinos, Iain Walker, Ngaire Donaghue University of Adelaide

9 Social cognition - eleven years after Martha Augoustinos, Iain Martha Augoustinos, Iain Walker: Social Cognition: An Integrated Introduction. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, Reprinted: 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005

10 Social cognition - eleven years after both monograph and textbook both monograph and textbook Australian perspective on USA and Europe Australian perspective on USA and Europe social cognition in the USA - individualistic and cognitivistic social cognition in the USA - individualistic and cognitivistic social cognition in Europe - social social cognition in Europe - social Contents: Contents: PART I: Theoretical Perspectives in Social Cognition PART I: Theoretical Perspectives in Social Cognition PART II: Integrations, Applications and Chalenges PART II: Integrations, Applications and Chalenges

11 Social cognition - eleven years after 1 Introduction 1 Introduction PART I: Theoretical Perspectives in Social Cognition PART I: Theoretical Perspectives in Social Cognition 2 Attitudes 2 Attitudes 3 Social Schemas 3 Social Schemas 4 Attributions 4 Attributions 5 Social Identity 5 Social Identity 6 Social Representations 6 Social Representations

12 Social cognition - eleven years after PART II: Integrations, Applications and Chalenges PART II: Integrations, Applications and Chalenges 7 Social Schemas and Social Representations 7 Social Schemas and Social Representations 8 Attributions and Social Representations 8 Attributions and Social Representations 9 Stereotypes, Prejudice and Intergroup Attributions 9 Stereotypes, Prejudice and Intergroup Attributions 10 Postmodern Challenges to Social Cognition 10 Postmodern Challenges to Social Cognition 11 The Social Psychological Study of Ideology 11 The Social Psychological Study of Ideology

13 Social cognition - eleven years after Martha Augoustinos, Iain Martha Augoustinos, Iain Walker, Ngaire Donaghue: Walker, Ngaire Donaghue: Social Cognition: Social Cognition: An Integrated Introduction. An Integrated Introduction. London, Thousand Oaks, London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, New Delhi: Sage, 2006.

14 Social cognition - eleven years after 1 Introduction 1 Introduction PART ONE: PART ONE: 2 Theoretical Foundations 2 Theoretical Foundations PART TWO: PART TWO: 3 Social Perception 3 Social Perception 4 Attitudes 4 Attitudes 5 Attributions 5 Attributions 6 Self and Identity 6 Self and Identity 7 Prejudice 7 Prejudice 8 Ideology 8 Ideology PART THREE: PART THREE: 9 Conclusion 9 Conclusion

15 Social cognition - eleven years after 1 Introduction 1 Introduction Defining social psychology Defining social psychology The crisis in social psychology The crisis in social psychology Social cognititon Social cognititon Aims of this book Aims of this book Organization of this book Organization of this book Concluding comments Concluding comments

16 Social cognition - eleven years after 2 Theoretical Foundations 2 Theoretical Foundations Introduction to social cognition models Introduction to social cognition models Introduction to social identity theory Introduction to social identity theory Introduction to social representations theory Introduction to social representations theory Introduction to discursive psychology Introduction to discursive psychology A post-cognitive psychology? A post-cognitive psychology? Chapter summary Chapter summary Further reading Further reading

17 Social cognition - eleven years after 3 Social Perception 3 Social Perception Social cognition and social perception Social cognition and social perception Social identity theory and social perception Social identity theory and social perception Social representations and social perception Social representations and social perception Discursive psychology and social perception Discursive psychology and social perception Chapter summary Chapter summary Further reading Further reading

18 Social cognition - eleven years after 4 Attitudes 4 Attitudes What is an attitude? What is an attitude? Social cognititon and attitudes Social cognititon and attitudes Attitudes and social identities Attitudes and social identities Attitudes and social representations Attitudes and social representations Discursive psychology and attitudes Discursive psychology and attitudes Chapter summary Chapter summary Further reading Further reading

19 Social cognition - eleven years after 5 Attributions 5 Attributions Social cognititon and attributions Social cognititon and attributions Attributional bias Attributional bias Social identity and attributions Social identity and attributions Social representations and attributions Social representations and attributions Discursive psychology and attributions Discursive psychology and attributions Chapter summary Chapter summary Further reading Further reading

20 Social cognition - eleven years after 6 Self and Identity 6 Self and Identity Social cognitive approaches to self and identity Social cognitive approaches to self and identity Functions of the self Functions of the self Social identity approaches to self and identity Social identity approaches to self and identity Social representations approaches to self and identity Social representations approaches to self and identity Discursive approaches to self and identity Discursive approaches to self and identity Chapter summary Chapter summary Further reading Further reading

21 Social cognition - eleven years after 7 Prejudice 7 Prejudice Social cognititon and prejudice Social cognititon and prejudice Social identity and prejudice Social identity and prejudice Social representations and prejudice Social representations and prejudice Discursive psychology and prejudice Discursive psychology and prejudice Chapter summary Chapter summary Further reading Further reading

22 Social cognition - eleven years after 8 Ideology 8 Ideology Social cognititon and ideology Social cognititon and ideology Social identity and ideology Social identity and ideology Social representations and ideology Social representations and ideology Discursive psychology and ideology Discursive psychology and ideology Chapter summary Chapter summary Further reading Further reading

23 Social cognition - eleven years after 9 Conclusion 9 Conclusion The individual and society The individual and society Levels of analysis Levels of analysis Realist vs. constructivist epistemologies Realist vs. constructivist epistemologies Social change Social change

24 Social cognition - eleven years after a lot has changed, a lot remained a lot has changed, a lot remained complete restructuring of the book complete restructuring of the book text which integrates significantly different approaches text which integrates significantly different approaches a book which is simultaneously a textbook and a monograph developing a unique social psychological viewpoint a book which is simultaneously a textbook and a monograph developing a unique social psychological viewpoint the crisis in social psychology (Cartwright, Elms, Gergen, McGuire, Pepitone, Sampson, Tajfel, Taylor and Brown) the crisis in social psychology (Cartwright, Elms, Gergen, McGuire, Pepitone, Sampson, Tajfel, Taylor and Brown)

25 Social cognition - eleven years after Social cognition refers to theory and research which is aimed at describing and explaining how we, as human beings, experience and understand ourselves in the social world. Social cognition refers to theory and research which is aimed at describing and explaining how we, as human beings, experience and understand ourselves in the social world. 4 foundational theoretical orientations: 4 foundational theoretical orientations: social cognitive social cognitive social identity social identity social representations social representations discursive psychological discursive psychological approaches approaches 4 basic standpoints 4 basic standpoints

26 Social cognition - eleven years after What is social about social cognition? What is social about social cognition? Susan Fiske and Shelley Taylor: „people are not things“ Susan Fiske and Shelley Taylor: „people are not things“ important differences: important differences: people intentionally influence their environment people intentionally influence their environment people, as objects of perception, perceive back (social cognition is mutual cognition), and joint perception is negotiated people, as objects of perception, perceive back (social cognition is mutual cognition), and joint perception is negotiated social cognition implicates the self as subject as well as object social cognition implicates the self as subject as well as object social objects may change upon being the target of cognition social objects may change upon being the target of cognition the accuracy, or veracity, of cognitions about people is harder, or impossible, to assess than for non-social objects the accuracy, or veracity, of cognitions about people is harder, or impossible, to assess than for non-social objects social cognition involves social explanation social cognition involves social explanation social cognition is shared social cognition is shared

27 Social cognition - eleven years after Social cognition models (Fiske and Taylor, 1991) Social cognition models (Fiske and Taylor, 1991) The social cognitive approach is a foundational approach within social psychological theory and research addressing how we understand the world around us and our place in it. Social cognitive research is experimental, and focuses on intraindividual mental processes. Emphasis is placed upon the structure of knowledge into mental schemas, which direct attention, facilitate encoding of information into memory, and facilitate recall of information. Schemas are activated, often unconsciously, by situated environmental stimuli. Activation makes it more likely that other related schemas will also become activated, and also makes less likely the activation of other, competing schemas. The social cognitive approach is a foundational approach within social psychological theory and research addressing how we understand the world around us and our place in it. Social cognitive research is experimental, and focuses on intraindividual mental processes. Emphasis is placed upon the structure of knowledge into mental schemas, which direct attention, facilitate encoding of information into memory, and facilitate recall of information. Schemas are activated, often unconsciously, by situated environmental stimuli. Activation makes it more likely that other related schemas will also become activated, and also makes less likely the activation of other, competing schemas.

28 Social cognition - eleven years after Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1981) Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1981) Social identity theory provides a systematic account of the links between personal and social identity, and between interindividual and intergroup behaviours. It focuses on the nature of social categorization, especially into ingroups and outgroups, the primacy of social identity and positive social differentiation, and on social comparison processes as the main means for evaluating the valence of social identifications. Self-categorization theory is a development which extends social identity theory into a fuller examination of the cognitive processes underpinning the contextual fluidity of personal and social identities. Social identity theory provides a systematic account of the links between personal and social identity, and between interindividual and intergroup behaviours. It focuses on the nature of social categorization, especially into ingroups and outgroups, the primacy of social identity and positive social differentiation, and on social comparison processes as the main means for evaluating the valence of social identifications. Self-categorization theory is a development which extends social identity theory into a fuller examination of the cognitive processes underpinning the contextual fluidity of personal and social identities.

29 Social cognition - eleven years after Social Representations Theory (Moscovici, 1981) Social Representations Theory (Moscovici, 1981) Social representations refer to the ideas, thoughts, images, and knowledge structures which members of a society or collectivity share. These consensual structures are socially created through communication and interaction between and among people. Representations conventionalize or anchor social objects, persons and events within a familiar categorical context - they give the unfamiliar meaning. Representations are reduced or objectified into both cognitive and pictorial elements which together form a core or figurative nucleus stored in memory and accessed during communication and interaction. Many of our social representations come from the world of science communicated to us through the mass media and elaborated upon by ordinary people to help make sense of everyday life. Social representations refer to the ideas, thoughts, images, and knowledge structures which members of a society or collectivity share. These consensual structures are socially created through communication and interaction between and among people. Representations conventionalize or anchor social objects, persons and events within a familiar categorical context - they give the unfamiliar meaning. Representations are reduced or objectified into both cognitive and pictorial elements which together form a core or figurative nucleus stored in memory and accessed during communication and interaction. Many of our social representations come from the world of science communicated to us through the mass media and elaborated upon by ordinary people to help make sense of everyday life.

30 Social cognition - eleven years after Discursive Psychology (Gergen, 1985) Discursive Psychology (Gergen, 1985) Discursive psychology rejects the search for internal mental representations and the reliance on internal mechanisms to understand social life. Instead, discourse is seen as constitutive and functional, and hence is claimed to be the proper site of social psychological analysis. Discursive interaction is patterned and ordered, drawing on shared discursive resources such as interpretative repertoires to bring social reality into being and to manage interactants' identities. Discursive psychology rejects the search for internal mental representations and the reliance on internal mechanisms to understand social life. Instead, discourse is seen as constitutive and functional, and hence is claimed to be the proper site of social psychological analysis. Discursive interaction is patterned and ordered, drawing on shared discursive resources such as interpretative repertoires to bring social reality into being and to manage interactants' identities. a post-cognitive psychology? (Potter, 2000) a post-cognitive psychology? (Potter, 2000) Reality –> perception –> discourse Reality –> perception –> discourse Discourse –> perception –> reality Discourse –> perception –> reality

31 Social cognition - eleven years after 4 foundamental theoretical perspectives 4 foundamental theoretical perspectives social cognitive, social identity, social representations and discursive perspectives social cognitive, social identity, social representations and discursive perspectives addressing a series of topics addressing a series of topics social perception, attitudes, attributions, self and identity, prejudice and ideology social perception, attitudes, attributions, self and identity, prejudice and ideology points of commonality as well as difference points of commonality as well as difference aim of identifying a path towards integration across these perspectives aim of identifying a path towards integration across these perspectives conceptual, methodological, epistemological limitations conceptual, methodological, epistemological limitations broad issues about which the four perspectives differ broad issues about which the four perspectives differ

32 Social cognition - eleven years after The Individual and Society The Individual and Society psychology - social psychology - sociology (individual abstracted from social context vs. society and its institutions) psychology - social psychology - sociology (individual abstracted from social context vs. society and its institutions) Levels of Analysis Levels of Analysis intraindividual (soc. cogn. perspective) intraindividual (soc. cogn. perspective) interindividual (discursive perspective) interindividual (discursive perspective) intergroup (soc. identity + soc. representations perspectives) intergroup (soc. identity + soc. representations perspectives) collective collective intraindividual - anathema to soc. representations and discursive res. intraindividual - anathema to soc. representations and discursive res. intergroup - anathema to soc. cognitive researchers intergroup - anathema to soc. cognitive researchers

33 Social cognition - eleven years after Realist vs. Constructivist Epistemologies Realist vs. Constructivist Epistemologies all: humans actively construct their social environment - how? all: humans actively construct their social environment - how? 3 approaches rest on a realist philosophy of science 3 approaches rest on a realist philosophy of science vs. discursive perspective vs. discursive perspective call for more adequate analysis of „truth“ and „reality“ call for more adequate analysis of „truth“ and „reality“ Social Change Social Change largely shared across the four different perspectives largely shared across the four different perspectives what is to be changed? what is to be changed? Social cognition - as much a mirror as a telescope Social cognition - as much a mirror as a telescope

34 Thank You for Your Attention


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