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111111 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Chapter Eleven Social Diversity.

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Presentation on theme: "111111 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Chapter Eleven Social Diversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Chapter Eleven Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

2 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Why Be Concerned About Vocational Education? Renewed interest in vocational education in 1990s renews discussion about the purpose of education Questions of fairness, as concern for low-income groups and minority economic assimilation provoke interest in vocational education Can we educate through vocations rather than for vocations (Dewey)? (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

3 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Historical Perspective Smith-Hughes Act (1917)  First federal backing of the belief that the primary job of schooling was economic 1960s revival of vocational education under Conant in the comprehensive high school; community college link Career education movement of 1970s led to criticisms about vocational education’s effectiveness (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

4 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Vocational Education Goals Integrate the “disadvantaged” into the economic mainstream Help solve national employment problems and meet national defense needs Provide a relevant curriculum for non- college bound students Address youth problems like delinquency and teenage pregnancy (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

5 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Current Perspectives Significant amounts spent on vocational education by state, local, and federal sources Programs increasingly located in community colleges Enrollment declining in secondary schools Unclear that vocational education actually fulfills goals  Workplace technologies too fast paced to keep up with  Number of years in school seems to be better indicator of employability and income (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

6 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Community Colleges and Vocational Education Pincus argues that programs reproduce sex, race, and class inequality Transfer rates of students to four-year programs remain low, with white and Asian students more likely to transfer Those who transfer unlikely to graduate Education about the workplace more likely to undermine efforts to educate for workplace—so students remain ignorant of options (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

7 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Potential Strengths of Perkins Act Amendments of Concentrated in low-income school districts 2.Initiatives must come from local districts, rather than state 3.“tech-prep” approach rather than training for specific jobs 4.Integration of academic and vocational studies (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

8 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals The Future of the Workplace—What Students Need to Know Shift from manufacturing to service jobs Technology jobs are growing, but make up only small percentage of total job growth On-the-job training now a significant factor Income and benefits declining for the jobs that will be available Loss of decision-making power and autonomy (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

9 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals The Future of the Workplace—What Students Need to Know Employers want these skills:  Reading and comprehension skills  Written and oral communication skills  Thinking  Problem solving and decision-making skills  Computational skills Does vocational education foster these? (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

10 10 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Training Through Occupations Training for intellectual and moral growth for maximum flexibility Activity-centered teaching Foxfire cultural journalism curriculum; 4H (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

11 11 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Successful Curriculum Integration in High Schools Calls for…. 1.Programs of greater intellectual sophistication 2.A new conception of vocational education that prepares students for different post-secondary options 3.Helping students connect current choices with future options 4.Realign high schools to be coherent 5.Reduction of tracking to allow greater choice 6.Engagement of students in their own learning 7.Stronger connections for high schools and outside institutions (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

12 12 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Aristotle’s Features of Liberal Education Education for the “whole of human excellence”  For vocational ends  For their own sake Emphasis on behaviors and the qualities necessary to perform these acts Guidance for young people in their choices (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

13 13 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Reconstructing the Liberal Education Ideal Confronting the emphasis on “getting a good job” Valuing breadth and depth of study Accommodation of non-traditional values (i.e., feminine values) necessary (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

14 14 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Concluding Remarks Can vocational education provide general literacy skills and help develop each student to his or her full potential? What are we as a society willing to settle for? What would we want for our own children? (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

15 15 School & Society: Chapter 11 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling Today: Vocational and Liberal Ideals Developing Your Professional Vocabulary general academic track general education heterogeneous grouping homogeneous grouping labor market liberal education service occupations tracking and de- tracking trivium and quadrivium vocational education vs. career education (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e


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