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1111111 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Chapter Fourteen Contemporary School Reform: The Post--Cold War.

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Presentation on theme: "1111111 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Chapter Fourteen Contemporary School Reform: The Post--Cold War."— Presentation transcript:

1 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Chapter Fourteen Contemporary School Reform: The Post--Cold War Era (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

2 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era School Reform in the 1980s and 1990s America 2000 and Goals 2000 Reform as a “first wave” (national consensus on reforms) and “second wave” (implementation at the local level) Alternative framework: reform in response to social and economic changes (as with earlier reforms) in 1980s  Decline of manufacturing; rise of technology  Decline in ability to compete in world markets  Decline in academic skills of students (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

3 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Four Major Themes of Reform 1.Academic-achievement definition of “educational excellence” Core subjects Standards, homework, time on task Standardized assessment Accountability (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

4 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Four Major Themes of Reform 2. Tension between concerns for “excellence” and concerns for diversity and equity Common content and standardized assessment seen as problematic for disadvantaged students While a consensus of cultural values is still missing, so is a commitment to a multicultural perspective (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

5 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Four Major Themes of Reform 3.Choice in schooling Parent and student “vote with their feet” Voucher system 4.Restructuring school governance and process and teaching profession Increased roles for teachers and citizens (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

6 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era What Is Restructuring? Tyack’s “magic incantation” Decision making in schools and districts  Chicago’s Local School Councils Reshaping the teaching profession and entry into it  National Reports; National Teaching Board Alter the aims and content of teaching and learning  Coalition for Essential Schools (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

7 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era The Results of Early Reform Efforts Many states increased academic requirements for students; more emphasis on math, science, foreign language Many states increased certification requirements and salaries for teachers “Excellence” tended to command more attention than equity Second wave of reforms slower and more erratic Local control increase chances of success Concerns about maintaining focus on higher order thinking skills for students and teachers (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

8 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Contemporary School Reform: A Critical View Did poor schools prompt a faltering economy in the 1970s and 1980s? Was it necessary to shore up our educational system to produce an internationally competitive work force? Was a coalition between state and local governments and business the answer? (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

9 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Contemporary School Reform: A Critical View Capitalism’s loyalty to free markets rather than public good set the stage for problems “Learning to learn” skills; highly educated people not necessary or wanted Economic rebound in 1990s not credited to schools Increasing visible collaboration between business and education continues (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

10 10 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Current Concerns About School Reform Where are teachers’ voices?  Teachers hear rhetoric, see little backing  Generally not asked for their opinions Whose needs are being met?  Are we supporting recruitment and retention of qualified teachers?  Are we addressing the underlying social issues that block learning? (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

11 11 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era For School Reform to Succeed, We Need… Strong leadership Goals and shared vision Patience, courage, and time Training Flexibility for multiple solutions Willingness to redesign infrastructure Effective management of resources Ongoing self-assessment (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

12 12 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Continuing Initiatives Sensible use of computer technology Community and parent involvement in schools School-to-work School choice, vouchers, and charters Standards-based professional preparation and development of teachers (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

13 13 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Concluding Remarks America’s lasting faith in the ability of schools to address and solve social problems leads to questions:  Who decides what the problems are and how to solve them?  Too many social concerns, not enough educational?  What restructuring strategies are best suited to meeting goals?  What gets in the way of confronting the social and educational problems that are obstacles to teaching and learning? (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

14 14 School & Society: Chapter 14 Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era Developing Your Professional Vocabulary A Nation at Risk America 2000: An Education Strategy charter schools “educational excellence” Goals 2000: Educate America Act school choice school restructuring standardized achievement testing for accountability standards-based teacher education teacher education in school reform movement voucher system for schools (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e


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