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Effective Groups and Teamwork Chapter Nine Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Groups and Teamwork Chapter Nine Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Groups and Teamwork Chapter Nine Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 9-2 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Describe the five stages of Tuckman’s theory of group development. Contrast roles and norms, and specify four reasons norms are enforced in organizations. Explain how a work group becomes a team, and identify five teamwork competencies. List at least four things managers can do to build trust. Describe self-managed teams and virtual teams. Describe groupthink, and identify at least four of its symptoms.

3 9-3 Fundamentals of Group Behavior Group -two or more freely interacting people with shared norms and goals and a common identity

4 9-4 Formal and Informal Groups Formal group -formed by the organization. Informal group -formed by friends

5 Formal Groups Fulfill Organizational and Individual Functions 9-5 Table 9-1

6 9-6 Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Figure 9-1

7 9-7 Group Development Process Stage 1: Forming Group members tend to be uncertain and anxious about their roles, the people in charge and the group’s goals Mutual trust is low

8 9-8 Group Development Process Stage 2: Storming Time of testing Individuals try to determine how they fit into the power structure Procrastination may occur

9 9-9 Group Development Process Stage 3: Norming Questions about authority and power are resolved through unemotional, matter-of- fact group discussion Group cohesiveness -a “we feeling” binding group members together

10 Question? A search committee has been created at ABC University to hire a new dean of College of Business. During which stage of the group development process would the search committee address role agreements and working as a team? A.Storming B.Performing C.Adjourning D.Norming 9-10

11 9-11 Group Development Process Stage 4: Performing Activity focused on solving task problems Climate of open communication, strong cooperation, and lots of helping behavior

12 9-12 Group Development Process Stage 5: Adjourning Work is done Time to move on to other things

13 9-13 Group Member Roles Roles -expected behaviors for a given position Task roles -task-oriented group behavior -Keep the group on track Maintenance roles -relationship-building group behavior -Keep the group together

14 9-14 Task and Maintenance Roles

15 9-15 Question? Bob's role in his work group is to promote greater understanding through examples or explanation of implications. Bob's role can be described as a(n): A.Initiator B.Elaborator C.Coordinator D.Energizer

16 9-16 Norms -shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior Ostracism -rejection by other group members

17 How Norms are Developed 1.Explicit statements by supervisors or co- workers 2.Critical events in the group’s history 3.Primacy 4.Carryover behaviors from past situations 9-17

18 Why Norms are Enforced Help the group or organization survive Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity 9-18

19 9-19 Teams Team -small group with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for common purpose, goals, and approach. -Task groups that have matured to the performing stage

20 9-20 Teams A group becomes a team when: 1.Leadership becomes a shared activity 2.Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective 3.The group develops its own purpose or mission 4.Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity

21 Team Building Team building -experiential learning aimed at better internal functioning of groups 9-21

22 Question? As the new Department Chair, Melvin wanted his faculty members to engage in more collaboration. He decided to start by taking everyone to a Paintball course. This is called ___________. A.Social loafing B.Cohesiveness C.Team building D.Leadership 9-22

23 9-23 Trust -reciprocal faith in other’ intentions and behavior.

24 9-24 Three Dimensions of Trust Overall trust -expecting fair play, the truth, and empathy Emotional trust -having faith that someone will not misrepresent you to others or betray you

25 Three Dimensions of Trust (cont.) Reliableness -believing that promises and appointments will be kept and commitments met 9-25

26 9-26 How to Build Trust 1.Communication 2.Support 3.Respect 4.Fairness 5.Predictability 6.Competence

27 Question? As quarterback at Alabama, Jay Barker won almost all of the games he started. When the team was in a tough situation, they trusted Barker to help them win. The team’s trust was built by Barker’s _______. A.Respect B.Fairness C.Predictability D.Competence 9-27

28 9-28 Self-Managed Teams Self-managed teams -groups of employees granted administrative oversight for their work

29 9-29 Indirect Influence Tactics of Self Managed Teams Relating Scouting Persuading Empowering

30 9-30 Teams Cross-functionalism -team made up of technical specialists from different areas

31 9-31 Question? The work team at More 4 Babies, Inc. is made up of technical specialists from different areas of the company. This feature of the work team at More 4 Babies is referred to as A.Cross-functionalism. B.Administrative alignment. C.Cohesiveness. D.Groupthink.

32 9-32 Are Self Managed Teams Effective? Have a positive effect on productivity Have a positive effect on specific attitudes relating to self-management No significant effect on general attitudes No significant effect on absenteeism or turnover

33 9-33 Virtual Teams Virtual team -allows group members in different locations using information technology to conduct business.

34 9-34 Research Insights Virtual groups formed over the Internet follow a group development process similar to that of face-to-face groups -Meaningful face-to-face contact during early phases of group development process is essential Internet chat rooms create more work and yield poorer decisions than face-to-face meetings

35 9-35 Threats to Group and Team Effectiveness Groupthink -Janis’s term for cohesive in-group’s unwillingness to realistically view alternatives. Read an article on groupthink

36 Symptoms of Groupthink Invulnerability Inherent morality Rationalization Stereotyped views of opposition Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Peer pressure Mindguards 9-36

37 9-37 Social Loafing -decrease in individual effort as group size increases

38 Reasons for Social Loafing Equity of effort Loss of personal accountability Motivational loss due to sharing of rewards Coordination loss as more people perform the task 9-38

39 9-39 Question? The Principles of Management class has a project that counts for 50% of the class grade. Groups of 10 have been assigned to complete it. Duane thinks that he will not have to work very hard because the group is so large. This is called _______. A.Groupthink B.Cohesiveness C.Social loafing D.Collective groupthink

40 Supplemental Slides Slides 41-46 contain extra non-text examples to integrate and enhance instructor lectures -Slide 41: Recent Research on Trust -Slide 42: Management in the Movies: 13 Going on 30 -Slide 43: Virtual Teams -Slide 44: Tips for Working on Virtual Teams -Slide 45-46: Video discussion slides 9-40

41 9-41 Recent Research on Trust Schweitzer, Hershey, and Bradlow (2006) – conducted laboratory study and found….. -When trust is broken by untrustworthy actions, it can be restored through consistent trustworthy actions -A promise to act in a trustworthy way helps facilitate the regaining of trust -Deception does serious long-term damage to trust and makes it very difficult to restore, even when followed by trustworthy actions

42 9-42 Management in the Movies 13 Going on 30 In this scene, Jenna is at a Poise magazine party. How does the group on the dance floor move through the stages of group development? What type of group is the dance floor group?

43 9-43 Virtual Teams – Quotes from the Front Line “Since I don’t know those people in [other cities], getting their stuff done is a low priority. My priorities are about things that are in my face, like when people I see every day are standing there looking at me, waiting for me to get their stuff done.” “Everybody is so busy that you know they’re all multitasking during the call. When I’m the one leading a meeting, I’m pretty sure half of them are checking their e-mails. Nobody pays much attention.”

44 9-44 Tips for Working on Virtual Teams Meet face-to-face to start a project and for major milestones Assume positive intent -If an e-mail's tone sounds off-putting, withhold judgment until you learn more or talk to them directly via phone Engage in positive predictable behavior -Honor commitments, attend meetings on time, don’t send terse emails

45 Video Case: United Airlines Employees Learn from Nascar What types of things can a ground crew member working for an airline company learn from a NASCAR pit crew? Why are the lessons learned from Pit Crew U so universally applicable across many jobs and industries? How could United justify the costs of sending 1200 employees to Pit Crew U - will they save that much time? What is United’s goal in sending the employees to Pit Crew U? 9-45

46 Video Case: Teamwork: Team Activities for Coworkers What types of activities are being used today for team building and skills development? Why do these types of activities work? Are companies able to justify sending employees to fun training programs? How? Are corporate training programs such as those described in the video case growing in popularity? What benefits do you think you would get from attending training programs like those described in the case? 9-46

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