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Rules of Thumb Write about literature in the present tense (unless an action occurs in the historical past of the story) Double-space everything Introduce.

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Presentation on theme: "Rules of Thumb Write about literature in the present tense (unless an action occurs in the historical past of the story) Double-space everything Introduce."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rules of Thumb Write about literature in the present tense (unless an action occurs in the historical past of the story) Double-space everything Introduce all quotations No more than 10% of your paper should be quoted. Quote exactly: use ellipses to remove quoted information (... ) and brackets to add information [ ]. Inset the quotation if it is over four lines typed (if prose) or over three lines typed (if poetry). Consult MLA Handbook

2 Works Cited Tennyson, Alfred Lord. “Ulysses.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9th ed. The Victorian Age. Vol. E. Ed. Catherine Robson and Carol T. Christ. New York: Norton, Print. Yeats, W. B. “Easter, 1916.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 9th ed. The Twentieth Century and After. Vol. F. Ed. Jahan Ramazani and Jon Stallworthy and. New York: Norton, Print.

3 Works Cited Faulkner, William. “A Rose for Emily.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Shorter Eleventh edition. Ed. Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, Print. Fetterley, Judith. “A Rose for Emily.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Shorter Eleventh edition. Ed. Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, Print. Klein, Thomas. “The Ghostly Voice of Gossip in Faulkner’s ‘A Rose for Emily’.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Shorter Eleventh edition. Ed. Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, Print.

4 Works Cited Brontë, Emily. Wuthering Heights. Ed. Ian Jack. Oxford: Oxford World’s Classics, Print. Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. Trans. David Wright. Oxford: Oxford UP, Print. Use page numbers if you are quoting from Chaucer (because line numbers are not provided in your edition).

5 Introduce all quotations Wrong: In “Chrysanthemums,” we are presented with a character who is stifled by her environment. “On every side it sat like a lid on the mountains and made of the valley a closed pot” (489). Right: In “Chrysanthemums,” we are presented with a character who is stifled by her environment. Even the sky above “sat like a lid on the mountains and made of the valley a closed pot” (489). Right: In “Chrysanthemums,” we are presented with a character who is stifled by her environment: on every side it sat like a lid on the mountains and made of the valley a closed pot” (489).

6 Quoting Prose “He was obeyed,” writes Joseph Conrad of the company manager, “yet he inspired neither love nor fear, nor even respect” (54). This is, in other words, a typical bureaucrat, someone who is blandly competent but who lacks passion or any ability to stimulate devotion in his employees.

7 Quoting Prose At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph and the other boys realize the horror of their actions: The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island. (186) Now comment on something relevant in the quotation.

8 Quoting Poetry (1-3 lines) Bradshaw frames the poem with a sense of mortality: “All things within this fading world hath end” (1). Reflecting on the “incident” in Baltimore, the speaker concludes, “Of all the things that have happened there / That’s all I remember” (11-12).

9 Quoting Poetry (4 lines or more) Elizabeth Bishop’s “In the Waiting Room” is rich in evocative detail: It was winter. It got dark early. The waiting room was full of grown-up people, arctics and overcoats, lamps and magazines. (6-10)

10 The Speaker When you write about poetry, be careful to distinguish between the speaker of the lines of verse and the poet who composed the poem. It’s usually best to say, “The speaker says …” (and then “he” or “she”) Or “The Duke tells the count’s agent that ….” You should refer to the poet when discussing what he or she is doing as a writer: “Browning uses dramatic monologue to show….” “Browning often uses colloquial language in his verse.” Don’t say, “It says….”

11 The narrator refers to Miss Emily’s “big, squarish frame house” as “an eyesore among eyesores” (Faulkner 391). Faulkner remarked that the title “was a salute” to Miss Emily. As he said, “to a woman you would hand a rose” (“Authors” 398). Ray B. West, Jr. refers to death as “the final sign of the passage of time” (402). Why the difference in verb tense?

12 Works Cited “Authors on their Work: William Faulkner.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Alison Booth and Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, Print. [note: these entries should all be evenly double-spaced] Faulkner, William. “A Rose for Emily.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Alison Booth and Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, Print. West Jr., Ray B., “Faulkner’s ‘A Rose for Emily.’ ” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Alison Booth and Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, Print.

13 Work Cited Larkin, Philip. “Church Going.” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Alison Booth and Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, Print.

14 Pip characterizes life as “that universal struggle” (Dickens 3). Work Cited Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. Ed. Charlotte Mitchell, London: Penguin, 2003.

15 Verse quotation beginning in middle of line In a poem on Thomas Hardy, Molly Holden recalls her encounter with a “young dog fox” one morning: I remember he glanced at me in just that way, independent and unabashed, the handsome sidelong look that went round and about but never directly met my eyes, for that would betray his soul. He was not being sly, only careful. (43-48)

16 Introduce words and phrases from the poem this way: The speaker mentions the “crooked hands” of the eagle (1), and he …. Do not say “The poem says” or “it says” Use the poet’s name when discussing his intentions or his use of a symbol or motif, etc. Tennyson depicts the eagle as a rugged and majestic bird.

17 When to Quote To lend expert authority To provide source material for analysis To indicate especially memorable words or phrasing Don’t Quote : Statistical information (“In 1960, 69.3% of the men and 65.9% of the women were married, whereas only 57.1% of men and 54% of women were in marriages in 2003”). Paraphase instead (According to a report by Rutgers University, conducted in 1960, nearly 70% of men and an almost equal number of women were married. More than forty years later, in 2003, only 57% of men were married, and 54% of women).

18 Always Introduce Quotations

19 Often it’s best to begin with the quotation

20 You might prefer to paraphrase

21 A quotation within the text

22 A paraphrase of a comment within the text

23 Your Last Page Works Cited Kipnis, Laura. “Against Love.” The Aims of Argument. Ed. Timothy W. Crusius and Carolyn E. Channell. New York: McGraw-Hill, Smiley, Jane. “Why Marriage?” The Aims of Argument. Ed. Timothy W. Crusius and Carolyn E. Channell. New York: McGraw-Hill, Waite, Linda J., and Maggie Gallagher. “Happily Ever After?” The Aims of Argument. Ed. Timothy W. Crusius and Carolyn E. Channell. New York: McGraw-Hill,

24 Handling Numbers Spell out numbers written in one or two words (“Twenty-four”). Represent other numbers by numerals (101). In a study of statistical findings, use numerals (101) for numbers that are presented together and that refer to similar things, such as in comparisons or reports of data. If the number is the first word of a sentence, then spell it out (“Twenty-four”).

25 Citations for Statistics Do the parenthetical citations this way: e.g. “According to recent demographical information published by Arkansas Tech University, 55% of Tech students were female and 45% male” (“All Students”). Or... (“Freshman”) or whatever.

26 Magazine Article Philpotts, Trey. “How to Beat the Rap.” Criminal Justice 6 (23 April 2005): “How to Beat the Rap.” Criminal Justice 6 (23 April 2005):

27 Book Doe, John. The History of Russellville, Arkansas. Russellville, AR: Arkansas Tech UP, Hardy, Thomas. Tess of the D’Urbervilles Ed. Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell. Oxford UP, Smith, Mary. The History of Dover, Arkansas. New York: Prentice-Hall, 2005.

28 Newspaper Lohr, Steve. “Now Playing: Babes in Cyberspace.” New York Times. 3 Apr. 1998, late ed.: C1+.

29 Works Cited: Advertisements

30 Chaucer’s Pilgrims on Works Cited Page Chaucer's Pilgrims : An Historical Guide to the Pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales. Ed. Laura C. Lambdin and Robert T. Lambdin. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

31 Chaucer’s Pilgrims, Works Cited Page McDonald, Richard B. “A sumonour was ther with us in that place.” Chaucer's Pilgrims : An Historical Guide to the Pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales. Ed. Laura C. Lambdin and Robert T. Lambdin. Westport, CT: Greenwood, [page numbers]

32 Works Cited Page Beowulf. Trans. Seamus Heaney. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 8th ed. The Middle Ages. Vol. A. Ed. Alfred David and James Simpson. New York: Norton, McDonald, Richard B. “A sumonour was ther with us in that place.” Chaucer's Pilgrims : An Historical Guide to the Pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales. Ed. Laura C. Lambdin and Robert T. Lambdin. Westport, CT: Greenwood, [page numbers] Richardson, Thomas C. “I demed hym som chanoun for to be.” Chaucer's Pilgrims : An Historical Guide to the Pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales. Ed. Laura C. Lambdin and Robert T. Lambdin. Westport, CT: Greenwood, [page numbers]

33 In-Text Citations... (McDonald 152). Richard McDonald says... (152).... (Richardson 14) Thomas Richardson says... (14). Use the critics’ first and last name, the first time you mention them. Then just their last name.

34 Quoting Prose Joseph Conrad writes of the company manager, “He was obeyed, yet he inspired neither love nor fear, nor even respect” (54). This is, in other words, a typical bureaucrat, someone who is blandly competent but who lacks passion or any ability to stimulate devotion in his employees.


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