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Risk management tools Patrick Hudson Tim Hudson Hudson Global Consulting.

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Presentation on theme: "Risk management tools Patrick Hudson Tim Hudson Hudson Global Consulting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Risk management tools Patrick Hudson Tim Hudson Hudson Global Consulting

2 How can we manage risk? We can manage risk by hoping it won’t happen We can manage risk by offering sacrifices to the Gods We can manage risk by understanding what we are doing The first two don’t work The third is what a Safety Management System does

3 Risk Risk is a complex concept Combination of to different components – RISK = Outcome x Probability of that outcome Outcomes – what could happen – Usually seen as a scenario – Worst case - conservative – Most credible worst case Probability of those outcomes – Often measured as frequency of occurrence – Needs to be applied before anything has gone wrong – Probabilities are difficult to estimate – Knowing the probability may change its value

4 Session 16Building World Class SMS

5 No StructureStructure safety management system Do Plan Check Feedback Continuous Improvement Engage Incident Potential Matrix TRIPOD Road Safety Plan Objectives Targets Organizati on Structure Alcohol & Drugs Policy HSE Plan HSE Policy Audit Plans HAZARDS & EFFECTS MGMT. EA Health Risk Assess. Unsafe Act Audit There is more to an SMS than lots of good intentions

6 Safety Management System (SMS) Production Protection Better defenses converted to increased production

7

8 Safety Management System (SMS) Protection Best practice operations under SMS Production

9 Generic HSE Management System (Shell) 1- Leadership and Commitment 2 - Policy and Strategic Objectives 8 - Management Review Corrective Action 7 - Audit 3 - Organisation, Responsibilities Resources and Standards Corrective Action 5 - Planning & Procedures 4 - Hazards & Effects Mgt (Risk Mgt) 6 – Implementation, Monitoring Corrective Action PLAN DO FEEDBACK CHECK

10 Hazard-based approach HEMP - Hazard and Effects Management Process Identify - What are the hazards? Assess - how big are those hazards? Control - how do we control the hazards? Recover - what if it still goes wrong?

11 Step 1. Identification First identify your hazards – What is going to hurt you? – Needs to be specific enough to manage practically E.g. not just potential and kinetic energy – General enough to manage specifics in the same way – Accumulate in a list – Hazard Register A range of tools and methods help here – Brainstorming - proactive – HAZID – Incident analyses - reactive Reporting

12 Step 2. Assess How big is the risk you are taking and running? A wide range of tools available Not an exact science – whatever anyone tells you Small risks can be ignored Large risks may not be taken Usually framed in terms of ALARP – As Low as Reasonably Practicable – Not intended to be as low as possible Risk assessment should point to what to do about the hazard in question

13 Step 3. Manage and control Primarily preventative Success is measured by nothing going wrong Prevention involves a variety of approaches – Use of the hierarchy of controls – Barriers to keep hazards in place – Controls to prevent them escaping Management is directly responsibility for the provision of controls and barriers – Requires resourcing, procurement and continuous evaluation Front line personnel is responsible for their use once provided and supported – Requires ability to operate the controls and barriers

14 Step 4. Recovery Recovery is necessary after control over a hazardous process has been lost But before the worst case consequences have been achieved Recovery controls and barriers are reactive The term Mitigation applies best here These controls are usually much more expensive than preventative controls Sometimes challenged because “We’ve never used that so we can get rid of it and save money”

15 Tools Risk management tools are intended to help one or more of the 4 steps – Usually applied continuously to improve – Especially on the feedback loops Audits Incident investigations Reporting Performance assessment for predictive improvement Identify – discover unexpected hazards Assess – evaluate what needs to be done Control – systematically list the controls to see if they are adequate to reduce the risk to acceptable levels Recover – identify what will reduce the consequences Successful risk management allows us to take the risks that enable us to get the benefits without disaster These can easily be mapped onto the ICAO components – Not just the risk management elements – Also all the other elements

16 Minimising Regret Maximising Opportunity Incident Normal Operations Missed Opportunity Safe Go No-Go RegretNo Regret

17 Risk Assessment Matrices A simple way of supporting the product of outcome and probability Not a discrete set of values, but an easy way of representing the distributions of severity of outcomes and their probabilities So – there is no single CORRECT Matrix

18 Risk Assessment Matrix The colour determines the level of active risk management required

19 Reduced exposure Left side Mitigation Right side Now After Risk Calculations

20 Reduced exposure Left side Mitigation Right side Risk matrix alternative The numbers are a reflection of how unacceptable the matrix cell is

21 What is ALARP? Options Risk Risk to stakeholders Cost Legal mimimum requirements ALARP = As Low As Reasonably Practical

22 How can we understand our controls? The Bowtie is an industry standard in many high- hazard activities Bowties cover both control and recovery Bowties are not primarily intended to be quantitative, but can be computed with Bowties visually express the extent and types of control and are easy for managers to understand – Is everything procedural – Does one person have to do everything

23 Bow-tie Concept Events and Circumstances Harm to people and damage to assets or environment HAZARDHAZARDHAZARDHAZARD CONSEQUENCESCONSEQUENCESCONSEQUENCESCONSEQUENCES CONTROLS Undesirable event with potential for harm or damage Engineering activities Maintenance activities Operations activities

24 The “Swiss Cheese” Model of Accident Causation The layers of Swiss cheese represent the “Defenses/Barriers” in an organization, according to the Reason Model. Hazards Losses Some holes due to “active” failures Some holes due to “latent” conditions

25 Bow-tie Concept for a specific event Events and Circumstances Harm to people and damage to assets or environment HAZARDHAZARDHAZARDHAZARD CONSEQUENCESCONSEQUENCESCONSEQUENCESCONSEQUENCES RISK CONTROLS Undesirable event with potential for harm or damage Engineering activities Maintenance activities Operations activities

26 A problem for aviation Simple models have difficulty in capturing recent major commercial aviation incidents Asiana 214, QF 32, AF 447, BA 38

27 A Diversion - Causality Simple accidents are simply caused – Linear and deterministic Complex accidents are more complex rule suggests simple accidents are 80% Remaining 20% require us to recognize complexity

28 Theory 1 - how accidents are caused Linear causes – A causes B causes C Deterministic - either it is a cause or it isn’t We can compute both backwards and forwards People are seen as the problem – human error etc Probably good enough to catch 80% of the accidents we are likely to have Covers most of private and GA operators

29 Private users

30 Theory 2 - how accidents are caused Non-Linear causes – Cause and consequence may be disproportionate – These causes are organizational, not individual Deterministic dynamics- either it is a cause or it isn’t We can compute both backwards and forwards – Increasingly difficult with non-linear causes This is the Organizational Accident Model Probably good enough to catch 80% of the residual accidents = 96% Probably best GA and professional operations

31 Oilfield operations

32 Non-linearity The size of an effect (consequence) is linearly proportional to the input – linearity Non-linearity is different – The size of an effect (bad consequences) gets bigger (or smaller after a while) as a function of the input – The improvement in performance gets smaller (almost always) even though the input gets bigger Linearity works fine to start with, but only 80% of the cases

33 Linear and non-linear functions Effect Cause Effect Cause Linear Non-linear Suddenly gets a lot worse

34 More non-linear functions Effect Cause Effect Cause Non-linear It can’t get much worseBoth – starts bad, tails off

35 Determinism A Causes B If A happens, then B will happen next

36 Non-determinism Move from A causes B to A makes B more likely Causation is probabilistic Probabilities are distributions, not points

37 Conditionalize on latest aircraft generation 4 th generation aircraft have dominantly weird accidents

38 Types of accidents Theory 1 Simple models may cover 80% of all accidents These are the simple personal accidents Theory 2 The next step gets 80% of the remainder = 96% These are the complex personal accidents and some organizational accidents Theory 3 The probabilistic approach may net the next 80% = 99.2% These are the complex process accidents

39 Theory 3 - how accidents are caused Non-Linear causes Non-Deterministic dynamics – Probabilistic rather than specific – Influences on outcomes by people and the organisation Probabilities may be distributions rather that single values We cannot compute both backwards and forwards The dominant accidents that remain are WEIRD – WILDLY – ERRATIC – INCIDENTS – RESULTING IN – DISASTER Prior to an event there may be a multitude of possible future outcomes

40 Unusual or WEIRD Accidents In commercial aviation major accidents are now extremely rare Simple risk assessment and analysis models often fail to capture how these accidents are caused We need to understand our risk space better The Rule of Three is an example of how to do this

41 The Rule of Three Accidents have many causes (50+) A number of dimensions were marginal Marginal conditions score as Orange NO-Go conditions score as Red The Rule of 3 is Three Oranges = Red

42 Aircraft Operation Dimensions Crew Factors Experience, Duty time, CRM Aircraft Perf. Category, Aids, Fuel, ADDs Weather Cloud base, wind, density alt, icing, wind Airfield Nav Aids, ATC, Dimensions, Topography Environment Night/day, Traffic, en route situation Plan Change, Adequacy, Pressures, Timing Platform Design, Stability, Management

43 The Rule of Three No of Oranges Outcome 1/21 1/22 1/23 1/2 Crash Big Sky We fixed it Problem No problem

44 Why does the rule work? People use cognitive capacity to allow for increasing risk As the oranges increase the remaining available capacity is reduced At 3 oranges there is little available capacity remaining Any trigger can de-stabilize the system An accident suddenly becomes very likely

45 Load > strength How random numbers combine Normal upper limit Normal lower limit

46 The danger zone/safe zone – safe operating envelope concept

47 Risk Risk is a complex concept Classically probability x outcome Safety management is about: – Taking risk – acceptable (ALOS) vs unacceptable – Running risk – getting away with it – Can be based on luck or on professionalism The granularity of the outcomes and how they can be reached is essential Most approaches are crude – Salami slicing is a way to evade regulation

48 Risk Space High Risk areas Low risk/resilient areas

49 Single distribution A Known danger zone

50 Single distribution B Known danger zone

51 Single distribution C Known danger zone Known danger zones

52 Combined distribution (A,B,C)

53 Known danger zones Known danger zone

54 Combined distribution (A,B,C) Unexpected danger zone Known danger zones Known danger zone

55 Simple view of combined distribution

56 Low average risk despite danger zone

57 Simple view of combined distribution Medium average risk despite danger zone

58 Simple view of combined distribution High average risk due to sufficient granularity

59 Mission Creep and Drift into Danger Success with risks makes people willing to accept greater risks – This is a consequence of risk homeostasis This can look like complacency, but is a natural consequence of their successes, so far Failure to understand the finer detail of the risk space makes this drift into danger more likely

60 Conclusion Conventional risk assessment involves uncovering the potential for bad consequences Modern commercial aviation is very safe, so the accidents we wish to avoid may not be caught by standard techniques Advanced risk analysis involves increasing our understanding of the risk space we operate in


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