2Plan for Today What is Profiling? Offender typologies Problems with profilingGeographical profiling
3What is Profiling?A technique for identifying the major personality and behavioural features of an offender based on an analysis of the crimes they have committed
4Goals of ProfilingSuspect prioritizationNew lines of enquiryInterview strategiesPredict dangerousnessFlush out offender
5Profiling What do profilers do? provide investigators with a personality composite, behavioral tendencies and demographic features of the unknown offenderAlso, crime and threat analysis, investigative assistance, strategies for interviews and prosecution, and expert testimonyMostly homicide, also rape, arson, bombing, espionage, stalking, extortion, kidnapping, terrorism and product tamperingTYPES: Criminal profiling, Geographical profiling, …
6Profiling Criminal Profile may include: Gender, age, race, occupation, socioeconomic status, mental status, area of residence, educational and family background, social habits and probable arrest historyGeographical profiling: area of “base”
7Criminal Profiling.The process of inferring distinctive personality characteristics of individuals responsible for committing crimes has commonly been referred to as criminal profiling
8Criminal ProfilingA profile generalised from behavioral and demographic characteristics shared by other criminals. Product of statistical characteristics and generalisation.Ex: 80% of all serial killers that attack college students in parking lots are white males, age 20-35, who live with their mother and drive Volkwagen vans.Our offender has attacked three female students in parking lots.Therefore our offender is a white male, age 20-35, who lives with his mother and drive a VW van...AssumptionsIndividual behavior and motivation can be predicted from the study of individuals who share similar behaviors and motivations.
9Different Types of Criminal Profiling Inductive ProfilingProfiling an offender from what is known about other offendersDeductive profilingProfiling an offender from evidence relating to the crime of that offender
10Inductive Profiling80% of serial killers who attack people in parking lots are white malesOur offender has attacked three people in parking lots, therefore it is likely that our offender is a white male
11Deductive ProfilingBody of a female victim is found with no blood or clothing at the sceneLocation is not the primary crime site due to the lack of blood and clothing found at the scene
12The profiler’s dictionnary: Modus Operandi (standard procedure)Behaviors committed by the offender during the commission of the crime which are necessary to complete the crime.Can vary as the offender becomes more experiencedMO ensures success, protect identity, offer escape: dynamicSignatureBehaviors the offender has to do to fulfill an emotional need or a fantasy.Thematic nature, it tends to be more stable over time.Needs of the offender: often ritualizedex: staging, overkill, bondage, etc.
13Example of MO and Signature An unknown subject rapes a woman in her home, using a rope garrote to control her while he rapes her, causing little or no other physical damage. The offense takes 10 or 15 minutes and then the offender leaves through the back door of the residence which shows signs of forced entry.Over the next two months, two more rapes are committed by the same rapist with roughly the same MO, each taking about ten to fifteen minutes. Investigators are able to make the connections right away because of DNA evidence collected at the various scenes. During rape number three, it is noted, the victim struggled a great deal and very heavy ligature furrows are observed on her neck.A week later, a fourth victim emerges. The fourth victim explains in her statement how the offender brought her in and out of consciousness intentionally using a rope garrote, and how the offender spent almost an hour with her. DNA evidence is unavailable for this fourth rape: is victim number four related?
14Example of MO and Signature All else being equal, this is the same offender.What has occurred is that the offender, over time, has eroticized the use of the garrote. During the first rapes, the garrote was a means to acquire and maintain control of the victim (MO Oriented).Over time and experience, the offender developed a sexual desire to strangle his victims while raping them (Fantasy Oriented).This is not surprising given the strong association of the garrote with the act of rape during the first few attacks.The presence of an object or behavior during sex can quite easily lead to it's eroticization and inclusion in fantasy and subsequently fantasy behavior.
15How do you create a Profile? Behavior reflects personality!Actions before, during and after crimeLook at what offender chose to do and what he chose not to do. (Behavioral fingerprint)SignatureWhat did he do that he did not have to?
16How do you create a Profile? Look at evidence, police and autopsy reports, crime scene photos, i.e., learn everything about the offenderUse inductive and deductive reasoning, experience of violent behavior, facts of particular case, and statistical probabilities.In depth interviews with violent offenders
17Organized - Disorganized typology Source: Robert Ressler, Ann W. Burgess, and John E. Douglas, Sexual Homicides: Patterns and Motives. New York: Free Press, 1992, pp , 130.
18PROFILE CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZED AND DISORGANIZED MURDERS Average or above-average IQBelow-average IQSocially adeptSocially inadequate, often never married, fearful of people, may have developed well-defined delusional systemSkilled-occupation employment history, but uneven work history, sometimes has job below abilitiesPoor work historySexually competentSexually incompetent, may never have achieved sexual intimacyHigh birth order in family, often first sonLow birth order in familyFather’s work generally stableFather’s work history unstableParental discipline perceived by offender as inconsistentHarsh parental disciplineMay feel angry or depressed at time of crime, but reports himself as calm during itRecurring obsessional and/or primitive throughts, at time of crime is confused and distressed, acts impulsively under stressMay use alcohol prior to crimeLimited use of alcoholPrecipitating situational stress, e.g. financial, marital, relationships with females, and employment problemsMinimal situational stressUsually living with partnerLives alone or with parental figureLikely to have car in good conditionUsually finds victims in his geographic area, lives in close proximity to sceneFollows crime in newspapers, clippings about crimes committed often found at offender’s home, may take souvenirs from victim or sceneLittle interest in news media8-9
19THE ORGANIZED/DISORGANIZED OFFENDER The organized/disorganized offender is an FBI model. The organized/disorganized offender dichotomy has a strong crime scene focus.Stage 1: Collecting inputs, which are essential for accurate profilingState 2: Using Decision Process Models, which is the process of organizing and arranging the inputs into meaning patternsStage 3: making the crime assessment, which is the reconstruction of the sequence of events and the behavior of both the victim and the offender
20THE ORGANIZED/DISORGANIZED OFFENDER Stage 4: Developing the criminal profile, a process which addresses the type of person who committed the crime and that individual's behavioral organization in relation to the crime, including background information, physical characteristics, habits, beliefs, values, pre-offense behavior leading to the crime and post-offense behavior
21THE ORGANIZED/DISORGANIZED OFFENDER Stage 5: Continuing the on-going investigation by those assigned to it, with the profiler making adjustments in the profile if fresh information warrants it and being available to discuss the case with those assigned on an as-needed basisStage 6: Following the apprehension, reviewing the agreement between the outcome and the various stages of the profiling process are examined
23Organized crime scene predicts: Premeditation, manipulative, cunning, deliberate and methodical. Psychopathic (narcissistic and remorseless)Pride in appearance, articulate, outgoing, charmingCrimes and aftermath well planned and executedChooses targets carefully, brings own weapon, tries to conceal the bodyCONTROL (a thinking criminal)Older, more mature, leave general area (drive)
24Disorganized Crime Scene predicts: Loner, few social skills and ties, feels inadequateSloppy unkempt appearance (home), haphazard impulse crimes against victims of opportunity.More likely to attack family, friends, neighbors or acquaintancesFrenzied crime scene – sparked by drugs, mental illness, or inexperience. Mutilation and overkillSymbols of disorganization reflect delusionsBlitz attack, leaving victimAttack close to home, walk or public transportation
25Mixed crime sceneYoung offender making transition to organized predatorShort temper but plans revenge without taking unnecessary risksSituational factors (inability to control victim) leading to improvised behaviorMore than one perpetrator
26The profiler’s dictionnary: (con’d) Serial murder, Spree murder, and Mass murder:Serial: three or more separate events with a cooling off period between homicides)Spree: killing at 2 or more locations with no emotional cooling off period between homicides.Mass : anything more than 3 victims in one location and within one event.
27Homicidal trends Serial killers generally target strangers, consistency in victim profileCooling off periodTrophiesAt least 3 victims
28THE HOLMES TYPOLOGY ACT-FOCUSED (quick kill) 1 - THE VISIONARY - hears voices or sees visions that tell him to kill (psychotic), the voices tend to be either God or the devil, legitimating the violence.2- THE MISSIONARY - goes on hunting "missions" to eradicate a group of people (prostitutes, Jews, etc.) from face of earth, seems like "fine young man" to neighbors.PROCESS-FOCUSED (slow kill)3 - THE COMFORT-ORIENTED HEDONIST - takes pleasure from killing, but also gets some profit or personal gain from it. (mostly women)4 - THE LUST-ORIENTED HEDONIST - associates sexual pleasure with murder, sex while killing and necrophilia are eroticized experiences.5 - THE THRILL-ORIENTED HEDONIST - gets a "rush" or "high" from killing, an elixir of thrills, excitement, and euphoria at victim's final anguish.6 - THE POWER/CONTROL FREAK - takes pleasure from manipulation and domination (sociopath), experiences a "rush" or "high" from victim's misery.
29Serial Killing Hunting grounds for serial killers: “Sites and zones” 1. sin strips2. gay bars or single bars3. skid row areas4. college campuses“Sites and zones”1. VICTIM'S LAST KNOWN LOCATION2. COMFORT ZONE (activity spaces, hunting grounds, stalking sites)3. BUFFER ZONE (offender's residential location)4. ATTACK SITE (edge of comfort zone; actual crime scene)5. HOLDING SITE (sometimes used)6. VEHICLE DISPOSAL SITE7. PROPERTY DISPOSAL SITE8. BODY DUMP SITE or DISPOSAL ZONE
30Most frequently selected victims [Hickey (2002; 399 serial killers)] Strangers (70%)1. College students,prostitutes2. Little boys and girls3. Hitchhikers4. People at home5. Handicapped people6. Store-owners, landlords7. People walking street8. Older women9. Police officers10. Derelicts/transients11. People responding to newspaper adsAcquaintances (20%)1. Friends and neighbours2. Girlfriends and boyfriends3. Waitresses and prostitutes4. Co-workers5. Landlords, employers, guards6. Gang members7. PatientsFamily (10%)1. Own children2. Husbands3. Wives4. In-laws5. Nephews, nieces6. Own mother7. Sibling8. Grandparents
31Male Serial Killers: Methods 1. Firearms mainly (41%) Motives 2. Suffocation (37%)3. Stabbing (34%)4. Bludgeoning (26%)5. Firearms only (19%)6. Poison (11%)7. Drowning (3%)8. Other (2%)Motives1. Sex (55%)2. Control (29%)3. Money (19%)4. Enjoyment (16%)5. Racism and hatred (11%)6. Mental problems (6%)7. Cult-inspired (5%)8. Attention (2%)Hickey (2002) studied 399 serial killers and found the following rank order of the most frequently used methods and motives
32Female Serial Killers: Methods1. Poison (80%)2. Shooting (20%)3. Bludgeoning (16%)4. Suffocation (16%)5. Stabbing (11%)6. Drowning (5%)Motives1. Money (74%)2. Control (13%)3. Enjoyment (11%)4. Sex (10%)5. Drugs, cult involvement, cover up, or feelings of inadequacy (24%)account for only 8% of all American serial killers, but American females account for 76% of all female serial killers worldwide. Hickey's (2002) subsample of 62 females out of 399 serial killers used the following methods and motives.
33Spree killers No cooling off period Different, indiscriminate locationsVictims are generally strangers or are utilitarian murdersHigh suicide rateOften “suicide by cop”
34Mass Murderers Kill 4 or more people at one time and place Mentally unbalanced, paranoid and suffering from chronic depressionPlagued by personal failure“workplace violence”
35Serial Rapists Power Reassurance rapist lacks confidence socially and sexually with women, rapes to reassure his masculinityWill fantasize a consensual relationship (may even believe it)Can be apologetice.g., “the gentleman rapist”
36Power Assertive Rapist Attacks to assert his masculinityBelieves women are objects for gratificationMacho self-perceptionWomen are seen as second class citizensWill strike impulsively
37Anger Retaliatory Rapist Wants to hurt, punish and humiliate victimsHates women in general (or specific group)Wants to “get even” for some real or perceived injusticeWill strike impulsively
38Anger Excitation Rapist Known more commonly as sexual sadistsLeast common but most violent rapistsHighly ritualistic crimesFantasies usually involve some master-slave relationshipSeeks complete control over victims and derives pleasure from their sufferingCrimes are methodically planned
39Opportunistic and Gang Rapists Opportunistic rapist is already committing another crimeoften involves drugs (especially alcohol)Gang rapes often operate on a mob or pack mentality (always a pack leader)- likelihood of serious physical injury to victim
41CriticismsDespite its successes, profiling as a field is not without criticisms. Include in these criticisms are:untrained or inadequately trained profilerspromising too much and delivering too littlerelying on inadequate or dated databasesoverstating the meaning of physical evidence
42Problems with profiling Can only create imprecise stereotypes, descriptions are vague and generalThere is little theoretical foundation for generated demographic and personality factorsCan narrow the investigation parametersArt based on experience rather than science
44What is Geographic Profiling? Geographic profiling is a technique typically used in serial violent crime investigations. It involves an analysis of crime scene locations in order to determine the most probable area of offender residence.
45What is Geographic Profiling? Geoprofiling/GP is an investigative strategy that uses the locations of a series of crimes to determine the most probable area of the offenders residenceGP does not “solve” crimes; it does prioritize suspects and their likely addressesThis allows investigators to focus their resources and strategies, e.g., saturation patrol, surveillance, and neighborhood canvasses
46Where Does a Geographic Profile Fit? Occurrence of a crimes seriesUse of traditional investigative techniquesLinkage analysisCriminal profileGeographic profileNew investigative strategies
471. Awareness and Activity Spaces AWARENESS SPACEACTIVITY SPACE
54Key ReferencesCanter, D.V. and Alison, L.J. (1999). Profiling in Policy and Practice: Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.Holmes, R.M. and Holmes, S.T. (2002). Profiling Violent Crimes. London: Sage Publications.Turvey, B. (2002). Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. New York: Academic Press.