Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Criminal Profiling Establishment of the FBI Behavioural Science Unit and now the Violent Criminal Investigation Unit (VI-CAP) in 1984. Researchers like.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Criminal Profiling Establishment of the FBI Behavioural Science Unit and now the Violent Criminal Investigation Unit (VI-CAP) in 1984. Researchers like."— Presentation transcript:

1 Criminal Profiling Establishment of the FBI Behavioural Science Unit and now the Violent Criminal Investigation Unit (VI-CAP) in Researchers like David Cantor [UK}, Burgess & Holmes have contributed a lot to this complex new field in criminology Increasing number of unsolved murders and decreasing detection rate in the US from 93% in 1962 to 65% 1995 and the increasing proportion of "stranger murders" -- increasing from less 10% to about 25% in the US. similar patterns appear to be emerging in other countries. Prevalence question is undecided but most agree that this phenomena is increasingly common and Hickey's work suggests that in the US the annual number of offenders has increased from 1 per year up to 1969 but is now around 10 per year in the US. He attaches much importance to understanding the demographics of the vicitms. Generally it is difficult to talk about serial murder without also talking about the nature of homicide and murder. This lecture focuses on a particularly rare form of homicide - the serial killer usually a "lust" killer. This is a bizarre world and highly controversial field of study and mostly of US origin. However, there is considerable overlap with theories explaining serial rapists, arsonists, pedophiles and work on profiling violent crime. See Holmes and Holmes [1996] , Turvey [1999] etc. Characteristics etc. of homicide in HK discussed and note the few [if any] occurring locally -- Tuen Muen Rapists probably qualifies but examples in Guandong also have occurred. Hickey [1997] study is qualitative and based on "constant comparison" and 337 men and 67 women responsible for between victims. His work "Serial Murderers and their Victims" is the basis for this lecture, although the work of others Hare, Burgess, Cantor and others will also inform this lecture. [see especially David Cantor 1994 "Criminal Shadows"]

2 3. Suggestions & strategies for interviewing suspects
Aims of Profiling 1. Social and psychological assessments of offenders demographic profile, age, race, employment & marital status narrowing the field of suspects, including likely geo-field & repetition cycle. 2. Psychological evaluations of belongings found on suspects -examples: trophies & souvenirs 3. Suggestions & strategies for interviewing suspects Results of profiling in FBI study of 192 cases were profiling was used only 88 were solved and of which only 15 [17%] were attributed to the profile [largely because . PPs are rarely used exclusively and Cantors geographical and behaviour based model is preferred since these maximise police resources and also those that rely more on actuarial techniques aimed at eliminating suspects [as in the NSW Milat case combined with good crime scene forensics]. The rational for PPs relies on the uniqueness of expereince and different personality types willbe reflected in the lifestyles and behaviour and this leads to several assumptions in the PP process.

3 Assumptions of Profiling
The uniqueness of experience & different personality types will be reflected in lifestyles & behavior. This leads to assumptions about profiling: The crime scene reflects the personality The methods remain similar The signature remains the same The personality will not change

4 Role of Profiling: Investigative Phase
Reduces the pool of suspects Links similar crimes through unique indicators & behavior patterns Assess potential for escalation in crime seriousness & frequency Provides investigators with potential leads and approaches

5 Role of Profiling: Trial Phase
Assists in evaluation of evidence Assists in developing interview strategies Helps gain insight on offender motivation Helps suggest a crime scene linkage by modus operandi and signature behavior

6 Psychopathy Vs Reactive Offender
Self-concept: Invulnerable Superior Pre-emptive rights Sees Others:Stupid Inferior Weak Strategies: Manipulative Violence REACTIVE Vulnerable Fluctuates/unstable Fragile rights Hostile Oppositional The enemy Inadequate problem solving “Defensive” violence

7 Serial Killers- Typologies
The Stable Killer The Transient Killer The Organized Killer The Disorganized Killer Serial Killer: A person who kills a number of people (usually over five) with a cooling off period between each murder (usually one murder at one given time, but two murders at one time occasionally happens); these murders may go on for a period of months or years until the killer is caught. Throughout the last three decades the US serial killer rate has risen 940%. In the next millenium serial killers will claim an average of 11 lives a day. There are at least 35 serial killers active in the USA today who claim one third of the annual murder rate. The US has 6% of the world’s population but 3/4 of all serial killers.

8 Typology of Serial Killers
Visionary - kill because of visions - generally psychotic Mission orientated - rid society of certain types of people e.g. prostitutes, runaway kids, racial group etc Hedonistic - "thrill seekers" & lust killers Power/Control orientated - pleasure is not sexual but power - often killing when the victim abandons hope of survival and acquiesces SK often associated with the Paraphilias (devaint sexual arousal & fetishes) and as a conbsequence some emphasize the importance of fantasy in creating the conditions for SK motivation: Holmes and DeBurger Typology [1988] based on assumption that it is psycho-genic [psychologically rewarding not insanity or gain], motives are evident only to the killer in an "intrinsic locus of motives" see the usefulness of the techniques of neutralisation idea and other socio-psychological theories of crime causation as well.

9 FBI Psychological Profile of Lust Killers
Organized Killer intelligent masculine image charismatic socially capable sexually capable occupationally mobile lives with partner geographically mobile harsh childhood discipline controlled emotions interested in media model inmate Disorganized Killer below average IQ socially immature seldom dates high school failure unemployed father lives alone has secret hiding places nocturnal lives/works near crime unskilled worker behavior change low interest in media high anxiety during crime Disorganised killers often will behave predictably after murder and usually are more easily caught than -- go to the crime scene, attend funeral, keep a diary, mood changes, religious revival, change employment, write to newspapers about vicitms etc.

10 FBI Profile: Organized
Show signs of planning and evidence of control at the crime scene Offenders are - Intelligent Socially skilled Sexually competent Live with a partner Usually target strangers Antisocial & psychopathic personality

11 FBI’s Approach to Offender Profiling: Disorganized
Unplanned and disorganized behavior & lack of control at the crime scene Offenders are - Low intelligence Socially and sexually inept Live alone Severe mental illness Likely have been suffered from physical or sexual abuse as a child Frightened or confused state of mind

12 Four Stages of Crime: Serial Killers
Pre-crime Stage Actual commission of crime Disposal of body Post-crime behavior

13 Investigation & Forensic Techniques
Solvability of serial killer crime depends on: Quality of police interviews with witnesses Circumstances that lead to the initial contact with the murderer Circumstances that established probable cause to search & seize physical evidence Quality of scene crime investigation Quality of scientific analysis of physical evidence

14 Profile of Fire-setters
Learning problems Poor school behavior Absent parents Lying Fights with siblings Disobedient Pre-occupied & fascinated by fire Impulsive Unhappy dysfunctional family Needs security & affection Impatient Poor concentration Attention seeking Peer influence Firesetting [juveniles] arson [adults] is considered by some psychologist as a good example of the connection to family dysfunction which is the essential pathology of poor socialisation. Hickey reports a US sudy of 1,200 juvenile firestarters [90% male] which found common psychological and behavioral problems and he argues this is the most persistent of deviant behaviours from childhood to adult whereas many childhood delinquency disappear with adulthood [but often this is because they can do those things they want to without breaking the law!!].

Download ppt "Criminal Profiling Establishment of the FBI Behavioural Science Unit and now the Violent Criminal Investigation Unit (VI-CAP) in 1984. Researchers like."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google