Presentation on theme: "Criminal Profiling Establishment of the FBI Behavioural Science Unit and now the Violent Criminal Investigation Unit (VI-CAP) in 1984. Researchers like."— Presentation transcript:
1 Criminal ProfilingEstablishment of the FBI Behavioural Science Unit and now the Violent Criminal Investigation Unit (VI-CAP) in Researchers like David Cantor [UK}, Burgess & Holmes have contributed a lot to this complex new field in criminology Increasing number of unsolved murders and decreasing detection rate in the US from 93% in 1962 to 65% 1995 and the increasing proportion of "stranger murders" -- increasing from less 10% to about 25% in the US. similar patterns appear to be emerging in other countries. Prevalence question is undecided but most agree that this phenomena is increasingly common and Hickey's work suggests that in the US the annual number of offenders has increased from 1 per year up to 1969 but is now around 10 per year in the US. He attaches much importance to understanding the demographics of the vicitms.Generally it is difficult to talk about serial murder without also talking about the nature of homicide and murder. This lecture focuses on a particularly rare form of homicide - the serial killer usually a "lust" killer. This is a bizarre world and highly controversial field of study and mostly of US origin. However, there is considerable overlap with theories explaining serial rapists, arsonists, pedophiles and work on profiling violent crime. See Holmes and Holmes  , Turvey  etc. Characteristics etc. of homicide in HK discussed and note the few [if any] occurring locally -- Tuen Muen Rapists probably qualifies but examples in Guandong also have occurred.Hickey  study is qualitative and based on "constant comparison" and 337 men and 67 women responsible for between victims. His work "Serial Murderers and their Victims" is the basis for this lecture, although the work of others Hare, Burgess, Cantor and others will also inform this lecture. [see especially David Cantor 1994 "Criminal Shadows"]
2 3. Suggestions & strategies for interviewing suspects Aims of Profiling1. Social and psychological assessments of offenders demographic profile, age, race, employment & marital status narrowing the field of suspects, including likely geo-field & repetition cycle.2. Psychological evaluations of belongings found on suspects -examples: trophies & souvenirs3. Suggestions & strategies for interviewing suspectsResults of profiling in FBI study of 192 cases were profiling was used only 88 were solved and of which only 15 [17%] were attributed to the profile [largely because . PPs are rarely used exclusively and Cantors geographical and behaviour based model is preferred since these maximise police resources and also those that rely more on actuarial techniques aimed at eliminating suspects [as in the NSW Milat case combined with good crime scene forensics]. The rational for PPs relies on the uniqueness of expereince and different personality types willbe reflected in the lifestyles and behaviour and this leads to several assumptions in the PP process.
3 Assumptions of Profiling The uniqueness of experience & different personality types will be reflected in lifestyles & behavior.This leads to assumptions about profiling:The crime scene reflects the personalityThe methods remain similarThe signature remains the sameThe personality will not change
4 Role of Profiling: Investigative Phase Reduces the pool of suspectsLinks similar crimes through unique indicators & behavior patternsAssess potential for escalation in crime seriousness & frequencyProvides investigators with potential leads and approaches
5 Role of Profiling: Trial Phase Assists in evaluation of evidenceAssists in developing interview strategiesHelps gain insight on offender motivationHelps suggest a crime scene linkage by modus operandi and signature behavior
6 Psychopathy Vs Reactive Offender Self-concept: InvulnerableSuperiorPre-emptive rightsSees Others:StupidInferiorWeakStrategies: ManipulativeViolenceREACTIVEVulnerableFluctuates/unstableFragile rightsHostileOppositionalThe enemyInadequate problem solving“Defensive” violence
7 Serial Killers- Typologies The Stable KillerThe Transient KillerThe Organized KillerThe Disorganized KillerSerial Killer: A person who kills a number of people (usually over five) with a cooling off period between each murder (usually one murder at one given time, but two murders at one time occasionally happens); these murders may go on for a period of months or years until the killer is caught.Throughout the last three decades the US serial killer rate has risen 940%.In the next millenium serial killers will claim an average of 11 lives a day.There are at least 35 serial killers active in the USA today who claim one third of the annual murder rate.The US has 6% of the world’s population but 3/4 of all serial killers.
8 Typology of Serial Killers Visionary - kill because of visions - generally psychoticMission orientated - rid society of certain types of people e.g. prostitutes, runaway kids, racial group etcHedonistic - "thrill seekers" & lust killersPower/Control orientated - pleasure is not sexual but power - often killing when the victim abandons hope of survival and acquiescesSK often associated with the Paraphilias (devaint sexual arousal & fetishes) and as a conbsequence some emphasize the importance of fantasy in creating the conditions for SK motivation:Holmes and DeBurger Typology  based on assumption that it is psycho-genic [psychologically rewarding not insanity or gain], motives are evident only to the killer in an "intrinsic locus of motives" see the usefulness of the techniques of neutralisation idea and other socio-psychological theories of crime causation as well.
9 FBI Psychological Profile of Lust Killers Organized Killerintelligentmasculine imagecharismaticsocially capablesexually capableoccupationally mobilelives with partnergeographically mobileharsh childhood disciplinecontrolled emotionsinterested in mediamodel inmateDisorganized Killerbelow average IQsocially immatureseldom dateshigh school failureunemployed fatherlives alonehas secret hiding placesnocturnallives/works near crimeunskilled workerbehavior changelow interest in mediahigh anxiety during crimeDisorganised killers often will behave predictably after murder and usually are more easily caught than -- go to the crime scene, attend funeral, keep a diary, mood changes, religious revival, change employment, write to newspapers about vicitms etc.
10 FBI Profile: Organized Show signs of planning and evidence of control at the crime sceneOffenders are -IntelligentSocially skilledSexually competentLive with a partnerUsually target strangersAntisocial & psychopathic personality
11 FBI’s Approach to Offender Profiling: Disorganized Unplanned and disorganized behavior & lack of control at the crime sceneOffenders are -Low intelligenceSocially and sexually ineptLive aloneSevere mental illnessLikely have been suffered from physical or sexual abuse as a childFrightened or confused state of mind
12 Four Stages of Crime: Serial Killers Pre-crime StageActual commission of crimeDisposal of bodyPost-crime behavior
13 Investigation & Forensic Techniques Solvability of serial killer crime depends on:Quality of police interviews with witnessesCircumstances that lead to the initial contact with the murdererCircumstances that established probable cause to search & seize physical evidenceQuality of scene crime investigationQuality of scientific analysis of physical evidence
14 Profile of Fire-setters Learning problemsPoor school behaviorAbsent parentsLyingFights with siblingsDisobedientPre-occupied & fascinated by fireImpulsiveUnhappy dysfunctional familyNeeds security & affectionImpatientPoor concentrationAttention seekingPeer influenceFiresetting [juveniles] arson [adults] is considered by some psychologist as a good example of the connection to family dysfunction which is the essential pathology of poor socialisation. Hickey reports a US sudy of 1,200 juvenile firestarters [90% male] which found common psychological and behavioral problems and he argues this is the most persistent of deviant behaviours from childhood to adult whereas many childhood delinquency disappear with adulthood [but often this is because they can do those things they want to without breaking the law!!].