Presentation on theme: "Infection Prevention and Control"— Presentation transcript:
1Infection Prevention and Control Starting with the Basics
2ObjectivesSpeak to the relationship between Infection Prevention methods and reduced transmission of multidrug resistant organisms and C. difficile.Explain the importance of hand hygiene including barriers preventing proper hand hygieneDescribe environmental cleaning issues and assessment methods for cleaning validationDiscuss recommendations for equipment cleaning and disinfectionList the personal protective equipment used to prevent the spread of organisms
3Multi Drug Resistant Organisms MDRO DefinitionMulti Drug Resistant OrganismsMicroorganisms, predominantly bacteria, that are resistant to one or more classes of antimicrobial agentsSome common ones include: MRSA, VRE, CRE ESBL, and Acinetobacter
4Colonized or Infected: What is the Difference? People who carry bacteria without evidence of infection (fever, purulent drainage, increased white blood cell count) are colonizedIf an infection develops, it is usually from bacteria that colonize patientsBacteria that colonize patients can be transmitted from one patient to another by the hands of healthcare workers~ Bacteria can be transmitted even if the patient is not infected ~
5Resistant Staphylococcus MRSA-Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causes a range of illnesses, from skin and wound infections to pneumonia and bloodstream infections that can cause sepsis and death.Staph bacteria, including MRSA, are one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections.Vancomycin is a common antibiotic used for treatment of MRSA infections. Staphylococcus aureus can become resistant to Vancomycin .
6Resistant Enterococcus VRE -Vancomycin resistant enterococcus can live in the human intestines and female genital tract without causing disease.VRE can cause infections of the urinary tract, the bloodstream, or of wounds associated with catheters or surgical procedures.People with colonized VRE do not need treatment.Most VRE infections can be treated with antibiotics other than Vancomycin.
7Carbapenem Resistant Organisms CRE - Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae bacteria are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics.Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are examples of Enterobacteriaceae, a normal part of the human gut bacteria, that can become carbapenem-resistant.Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) and NDM (New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase). KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective.Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM (Verona Integron-Mediated Metallo-β-lactamase) have also been reported in Pseudomonas.
8ESBL ResistanceESBL – Some bacteria product Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase enzymes that mediate resistance to extended-spectrum third generation cephalosporins , but do not affect cephamycins (e.g., cefoxitin and cefotetan) or carbapenems (e.g., meropenem or imipenem).K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E. coli, and some Enterobacteriaceae, such as Salmonella species and Proteus mirabilis, and isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can produce ESBLs.
9Resistant Acinetobacter Acinetobacter are gram-negative bacteria that cause of pneumonia, bloodstream infections, or wound infections among critically ill patients.Many of these bacteria have become very resistant to antibiotics.May “colonize” a patient especially in tracheostomy sites or open wounds.Can be spread to susceptible persons by person-to-person contact or contact with contaminated surfaces.
10Where Does C. difficile fit into this discussion? Clostridium difficile is not a multidrug resistant organismC. difficile is an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus, first detected in 1935 in lower intestinal microbiota of healthy newborns.C. difficile was thought to be nonpathogenic for nearly four decadesIn 1978, C.difficile was identified as the primary cause of pseudomembranous colitis in patients treated with antibiotics.
11C. Difficile FactsC. difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and a highly problematic healthcare-associated infectionThe major risk factors for CDI are exposure to antibiotics, hospitalization, and advanced age.The incubation period following acquisition is suggested to be short (median of 2–3 days).There are two states of C. difficile: The vegetative stage does not survive long, but the spore state can persist in the environment for many months.
12Transmission of MDRO MDRO are often used as surveillance Transmission and persistence of the resistant strain is determined by:Availability of vulnerable patientsSelective pressure exerted by antimicrobial useColonization pressureUtilization of prevention effortsMDRO are often used as surveillancemarkers to monitor for IC breaches
13CDC/HICPAC System for Categorizing Recommendations Category IA Strongly recommended for implementation and strongly supported by well designed experimental, clinical, or epidemiologic studies.Category IB Strongly recommended for implementation and supported by some experimental, clinical, or epidemiologic studies and a strong theoretical rationale.Category IC Required for implementation, as mandated by federal and/or state regulation or standard.Category II Suggested for implementation and supported by suggestive clinical or epidemiologic studies or a theoretical rationale.No recommendation Unresolved issue. Practices for which insufficient evidence or no consensus regarding efficacy exists.
14CDC RecommendationsTwo Tiered approach for prevention and control of MDRO in a healthcare settingTier one are general recommendations for routine prevention and controlTier two are intensified MDRO control efforts to institute when MDRO rates are not decreasing, an outbreak or new MDRO organism is identified
15Guideline Area Emphasis Administrative Measures/Adherence MonitoringMDRO EducationJudicious Antimicrobial UseSurveillanceInfection Control PrecautionsEnvironmental MeasuresDecolonization
16Administrative Support Provide administrative support and commit both fiscal and human resources to prevent and control MDRO transmission (IB)Enforce adherence to Standard and Contact Precautions (IB)Feedback to administration and staff on rates (IB)Participation in MDRO coalitions (IB)Effective communication (II)
17MDRO EducationStaff education should occur as part of orientation and periodically based on facility assessment (IB)Adherence to hand hygiene practices in conjunction with other control measures have been associated temporally with decreases in MDRO transmission in various healthcare settings.
18Judicious Antimicrobial Use Hospitals and LTCFs should have a multi-disciplinary process to review susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial agents in the formulary (IB)Implement a system to prompt clinicians to use the appropriate agent and regimen for a given clinical situation (IB)Provide clinicians with antimicrobial susceptibility reports at least annually (IB)
19SurveillanceEstablish a system that the lab promptly notifies IC, Medical Director, or designee if a novel resistance pattern is detected (IB)Hospitals and LTCF labs:Lab protocols for storing isolates for elected molecular typing when needed to confirm epi-link (IB)System to detect and communicate evidence of MDRO’s in clinical isolates (IB)Prepare facility and special care unit specific antimicrobial susceptibility reports and monitor for resistance changes (IA/IB/IC)Monitor trends in incidence of target MDRO’s over time (IA)
20Environmental Measures Follow recommended cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization guidelinesDedicate non-critical medical itemsPrioritize room cleaningFocus on cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces and equipment in immediate vicinity of patient.
21Decolonization Generally not routinely recommended Do not use topical Mupirocin to routinely decolonized MRSA patients as a component for MRSA control in any healthcare setting (IB)Limit decolonization to health care providers found to be colonized with MRSA who have an epi-link to ongoing transmission of MRSA to patients (IB)Consult with experts on a case-by-case basis regarding decolonization.
22Tier 1 - IC Precautions to Prevent Transmission Acute Care Settings Follow Standard Precautions in all healthcare settings (IB)Contact precautions in acute care settingsImplement for all patients known to be colonized or infected with target MDRO (IB)Patient placement in single room or cohort (IB)
23Tier 2 - Intensified MDRO Control Acute Care Settings Contact precautions should be used routinely for all infected and known colonized patients (IA)Don gowns and gloves upon entry to patient’s room or cubicle (IB)Maintain contact precautions if active surveillance cultures are obtained until results are negative (IB)Patient placement-single room or cohortImplement admission and placement policies as needed (IB)Stop new admissions to the unit or facility if transmission continues despite intensified control measures (IB)
24Infection Control and prevention Extended/Long-term Care Different patient populationMobile populationCognitive issues may be a factorIncontinence issues may be a factorFrequent hospitalizationsIncreased antibiotic useColonization pressureDouble-room/roommatesGroup living for extended time periodGroup activitiesThis is their home!!
25IC Precautions to Prevent Transmission LTCFs Tier 1 and Tier 2 Follow Standard Precautions in all healthcare settings (IB)Consider the individual patient’s clinical situation and facility resources in deciding whether to implement Contact Precautions (II)Patient placement in single room or cohort (IB)Tier 2:Use contact precautions routinely for patients colonized or infected (IA)Modify Contact Precautions for patients whose site of colonization or infection can be contained and who can observe good hand hygiene to enter common areas and group activitiesMaintain Contact Precautions until active surveillance cultures are negative (IB)Implement policies for patient admission and placement (IB)Stop admissions if transmission continues (IB)
26Patient PlacementWhen single-patient rooms are available, assign priority for these rooms to patients with known or suspected MDRO colonization or infection.When single-patient rooms are not available, cohort patients with the same MDRO in the same room or patient-care area.When cohorting patients with the same MDRO is not possible, place MDRO patients in rooms with patients who are at low risk for acquisition of MDROs and associated adverse outcomes from infection and are likely to have short lengths of stay.Give highest priority to those patients who have conditions that may facilitate transmission, e.g., uncontained secretions or excretions.
27Impact of Contact precautions on patient well-being Studies found that HCP, including attending physicians, were half as likely to enter the rooms of or examine patient on contact precautionsPatients placed on Contract Precautions for MRSA had significantly more preventable adverse events, expressed greater dissatisfaction with their treatment and had less documented care than non-isolated patients
28Infection Prevention Commonality Proper hand hygiene, proper use of PPE, Proper environmental cleaning, and proper cleaning, disinfection and/or sterilization of equipment, and avoiding reuse of single-use items.Infection Prevention encompasses many factorsBreaks or missteps with any of these factors can result in risk of infectionPatientsStaffVisitors
29Improper Disinfection And Sterilization Reuse of single-use items Multidose vialsContaminatedHandsPatientStaffVisitorsRadiationDiabetesSurgical incisionInvasive devices/LinesImmune StatusMedicationMedical ProceduresEnvironmentalSurfacesEnvironmentalCleaningEquipmentDisinfectionSterilizationPersonalProtectivePatient & StaffEducationHandHygieneReusableEquipmentSick VisitorsImproper PPE UseProlongedUse of linesContaminated medsImproper DisinfectionAnd SterilizationReuse of single-use itemsIll Employees
31Hand HygieneHand hygiene should be a cornerstone of prevention effortsPrevents transmission of pathogens via hands of healthcare personnelAs part of a hand hygiene intervention, consider:Ensuring easy access to soap and water/alcohol-based hand sanitizerEducation for healthcare personnel and patientsObservation of practices - particularly around high-risk procedures (before and after contact with colonized or infected patients)Feedback – “Just in time” feedback if failure to perform hand hygiene observedPositive and Negative feedback
32Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Know the Regulations Fire Code and/or Life SafetyThe maximum individual dispenser fluid1.2 Liters (1200mL; 0.3 gallons) for dispensers in patient rooms, corridors and areas open to corridorsCorridors must be at least 6 feet wide2.0 Liters (2000mL; 0.5 gallons) for dispensers in suites of rooms.Dispensers must be installed at least 4 feet apartDispenser must measure at least 6 inches from the center line to the ignition source.Dispensers installed directly over carpeted floors shall be permitted only in sprinkler smoke compartmentsMore storage and use regulations can be found at:https://www.ndhealth.gov/LifeSafety/PDF_Files/ALCOHOL_BASED_HAND_RUB_SOLUTIONS.pdf
33Poor Adherence to Hand Hygiene Self Reported • Hand washing agents cause irritation and dryness• Sinks are inconveniently located/shortage of sinks• Lack of soap and paper towels• Often too busy/insufficient time• Understaffing/overcrowding• Patient needs take priority• Hand hygiene interferes with health-care worker relationships with patients• Low risk of acquiring infection from patients• Wearing of gloves/beliefs that glove use obviates the need for hand hygiene• Lack of knowledge of guidelines/protocols• Not thinking about it/forgetfulness• No role model from colleagues or superiors• Skepticism regarding the value of hand hygiene• Disagreement with the recommendations• Lack of scientific information of definitive impact of improved hand hygiene on health-care–associated infection rates
34Personnel with heavy workloads have little time to wash their hands A recent study showed that the busier healthcare workers are, the less likely they are to wash their hands when recommended.Hand washingComplianceIncreasing Workload
35Sinks are often poorly located Sinks used for hand washing are often installed in inconvenient locations.Can you find the sink in this picture?
36Location, location, location ... The sink is located behind the patient’s bed and behind several IV pumps.(see arrow)Personnel are unlikely to use hand washing sinks if they are not readily accessible.Be involved with all remodel and construction projects from the design phase to completion of the project
37Another reason why personnel don’t wash their hands often Frequent hand washing with soap and water often causes skin irritation and dryness.Staff should be involved with hand hygiene product selectionFacilities should provide lotion that is compatible with soaps, sanitizers, and gloves
38Many personnel don’t realize when they have germs on their hands Healthcare workers can get 100s or 1000s of bacteria on their hands by doing simple tasks, like:pulling patients up in bedtaking a blood pressure or pulsetouching a patient’s handrolling patients over in bedtouching the patient’s gown or bed sheetstouching equipment like bedside rails, over-bed tables, IV pumpsCulture plate showing growth of bacteria 24 hours after a nurse placed her hand on the plate
39Using alcohol-based hand sanitizer to improve hand hygiene More than 20 published studies have shown that alcohol-based hand sanitizers are more effective than either plain soap or antibacterial soaps in reducing the number of live bacteria on the hands.Adapted from: Hosp Epidemiol Infect Control, 2nd Edition, 1999.
40Alcohol-based Hand Sanitizer Advantages When compared to traditional soap and water hand washing, alcohol hand sanitizers have the following advantages:take less time to usecan be made more accessible than sinkscause less skin irritation and drynessare more effective in reducing the number of bacteria on handsmakes alcohol-based hand sanitizers readily available to personnelhas led to improved hand hygiene practicesInfection Preventionists need to assess that hand sanitizer is available in convenient locations
41Soap and Water has it’s Place Hand Sanitizer has it’s Place also For hands that are visibly dirty or contaminated withproteinaceous material or are visibly soiled with blood or other body fluidsBefore eatingAfter using the restroomAfter exposure to C. difficile or Bacillus anthracis is suspected or proven.Hand Sanitizer has it’s Place alsoHand sanitizer dispensers should be placed in safe locationsPediatric units, chemical dependency units, cognitive and behavioral settings
42Measuring Hand Hygiene Methods of Measure Consider two methods of measurement:ObservationTime consuming/biasPatient or visitor/family surveysPatient knowledge/cognition/recallProduct MeasurementProxy measure/inaccuraciesElectronic MonitoringCost
43Measuring Hand Hygiene Compliance Observation most common type usedIssues include:Hawthorne EffectTime ConsumingBias by observersInability of anonymously observe behind closed doorsObjectiveMeasurableUnbiasedConsistentRepeatableAccurateComparableStaff education and feedback are very important componentsto a hand hygiene program
44How Healthcare workers contaminate their hands Frequency of Environmental Contaminationof Surfaces in the Rooms of Patients withMethicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA)Resistant bacteria on the skin or in the gastrointestinal tract of patients can often be found on common itemsHealthcare workers can contaminate their hands by touching environmental surfaces near affected patients.Percent of Surfaces Contaminated
46VRE on Hands and Environmental Surfaces Studies have been conducted to monitor thetransmission of VREUp to 41% of healthcare worker’s hands sampled (after patient care and before hand hygiene) were positive for VRE1VRE were recovered from a number of environmental surfaces in patient roomsVRE survived on a countertop for up to 7 days21 Hayden MK, Clin Infect Diseases 2000;31:2 Noskin G, Infect Control and Hosp Epidemi 1995;16:
47The Inanimate Environment Can Facilitate Transmission X represents VRE culture positive sites~ Contaminated surfaces increase cross-transmission ~
48Disinfectant UseIn patient-care areas, visibly soiled areas should first be cleaned and then chemically disinfected.For disinfection, the precleaned areas should be moistened with the appropriate disinfectant for the stated contact time and allowed to air dry.Gloves should be worn during cleaning and decontaminating procedures.
49Types of Disinfectants Spaulding Categorization There are three levels of disinfection:High Levelkills all organisms, except high levels of bacterial sporesIntermediate Levelkills mycobacteria, most viruses, and bacteria as chemical germicide registered as a "tuberculocide" by the EPALow Levelkills some viruses and bacteria as a chemical germicide registered as a hospital disinfectant by the EPA.
50Low or Intermediate Level Disinfection Contact TimeShort contact time may be difficult to obtainRoom turn around time can be a factorOrientation and ongoing staff educationQuiz staff and provide real-time educationManufacturer recommendationsReview to make sure disinfectants can be usedCDC guidelinesSome non critical equipment may not have M. recommendations available. CDC guidelines should be considered based on equipment construction and usage.
51Types of Devices Spaulding Categorization Critical DevicesReusable instruments or devices that enter sterile tissue, including the vascular system of any patient, and devices through which blood flows should be sterilized before reuse.Semi Critical DevicesReusable devices or items that touch mucous membranes should, at a minimum, receive high-level disinfection between patients.Noncritical DevicesExcept on rare and special instances, items that do not ordinarily touch the patient or touch only intact skin are not involved in disease transmission, and generally do not necessitate disinfection between uses on different patients.
52Environmental Cleaning for C. difficile Bleach can kill spores, whereas other standard disinfectants cannotLimited data suggest cleaning with bleach reduces C. difficile transmission1:10 dilution prepared fresh daily1:10 Prepackaged with stabilizersTwo before-after intervention studies demonstrated benefit of bleach cleaning in units with high endemic CDI ratesTherefore, bleach may be most effective in reducing burden where CDI is highly endemicMayfield et al. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:Wilcox et al. J Hosp Infect 2003;54:
53Environmental Cleaning Strategies Assess adequacy of cleaning before changing to new cleaning productsEnsure that environmental cleaning is adequate and high-touch surfaces are not being overlookedOne study used a fluorescent environmental marker to assess cleaning:only 47% of high-touch surfaces in 3 hospitals were cleanedsustained improvement in cleaning of all objects, especially in previously poorly cleaned objects, following educational interventions with the environmental services staffCarling et al. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42:385-8.
54CDC Recommendations Environmental Cleaning Evaluations Level One (basic program)Level Two (advanced program
56Observation Feedback Covert environmental marking Real time feedback for Environmental Services staffLet them see the areas that were missedTest at least 3 times a year using different time frames to capture different cleaning variancesProvide overall rates and findings to Environmental Services, Infection Control Committee and Administration
58Manufacturer’s Recommendations Is IP staff involved and providing input into new equipment and devices BEFORE they’re ordered?Can new equipment be cleaned properly with the disinfectants available?Are manufacturer recommendations accessible to the people responsible for cleaning and disinfecting the equipment?Can staff pull the recommendations on demand and are they following them correctly?
59Processing of Medical Devices Medical devices that require sterilization or disinfection must be thoroughly cleaned to reduce material/bio burden before being exposed to the germicide.Germicide and/or device manufacturers' instructions should be closely followed.
60Disinfection of Medical Devices Disinfection means the use of a chemical procedure that eliminates virtually all recognized pathogenic microorganisms but not necessarily all microbial forms (e.g., bacterial endospores) on inanimate objects.
61Types of Disinfectants There are three levels of disinfection:High Levelkills all organisms, except high levels of bacterial spores, and is effected with a chemical germicide cleared for marketing as a sterilant by the FDAIntermediate Levelkills mycobacteria, most viruses, and bacteria with a chemical germicide registered as a "tuberculocide" by the EPALow Levelkills some viruses and bacteria with a chemical germicide registered as a hospital disinfectant by the EPA.
62Types of Devices Noncritical Devices Except on rare and special instances, items that do not ordinarily touch the patient or touch only intact skin are not involved in disease transmission, and generally do not necessitate disinfection between uses on different patients.These items include crutches, bed boards, blood pressure cuffs, and a variety of other medical accessories.Consequently, depending on the particular piece of equipment or item, washing with a detergent or using a low-level disinfectant may be sufficient when decontamination is needed.If noncritical items are grossly soiled with blood or other body fluids, follow instructions outlined in the section on HIV-related sterilization and disinfection of this information system.
63Exceptions to Standard Disinfection Exceptional circumstances that require noncritical items to be either dedicated to one patient or patient cohort, or subjected to low-level disinfection between patient uses are those involving:Patients infected or colonized with drug-resistant microorganisms judged by the infection control program, based on current state, regional, or national recommendations, to be of special or clinical or epidemiologic significanceMRSA, VRE, CRE, C. difficilePatients infected with highly virulent microorganisms, e.g., viruses causing hemorrhagic fever (such as Ebola or Lassa).Prions
64Types of Devices Semi Critical Devices Reusable devices or items that touch mucous membranes should, at a minimum, receive high-level disinfection between patients.These devices include reusable flexible endoscopes, endotracheal tubes, anesthesia breathing circuits, and respiratory therapy equipment, dental instruments that do NOT penetrate soft tissue and bone.The other ones:Vaginal probes and speculums, anoscopes, rectal thermometersAre yours single-use disposable or reprocessed?
65Types of Devices Critical Devices Reusable instruments or devices that enter sterile tissue, including the vascular system of any patient, and devices through which blood flows should be sterilized before reuse.Dental equipment that penetrates soft tissue and bone.
66Sterilization of Medical Devices Sterilization means the use of a physical or chemical procedure to destroy all microbial life, including highly resistant bacterial endospores.The major sterilizing agents used in hospitals are: moist heat by steam autoclaving, chemical, ethylene oxide gas, and dry heat.
67Single-Use vs. Multi-Use Items Single-use is just that-it is used one time for one patient and disposed of properly.Multi-use items can be used more than once but manufacturer’s recommendations must be followed regarding amount of use, cleaning and disinfection between use, labeling, and storage.Reuse of single-use devices -FDA jurisdiction with strong mandates to insure the device is safe for useHospital or third-party processor is considered the manufacturer and held to the same standards and liabilityProvide education to staff so they understand what is meant by single-use vs. reusable equipment, supplies, or devicesHave a policy defining your facility’s processes
69Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) “Specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against infectious materials” (OSHA)Improve personnel safety in the healthcare environment through appropriate use of PPE.Personal protective equipment, or PPE, as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or OSHA, is “specialized clothing or equipment, worn by an employee for protection against infectious materials.”
70Regulations and Recommendations for PPE OSHA issues workplace health and safety regulations. Regarding PPE, employers must:Provide appropriate PPE for employeesEnsure that PPE is disposed or reusable PPE is cleaned, laundered, repaired and proper storageOSHA also specifies circumstances for which PPE is indicatedCDC recommends when, what and how to use PPEhttps://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_id=10051&p_table=STANDARDSOSHA issues regulations for workplace health and safety. These regulations require use of PPE in healthcare settings to protect healthcare personnel from exposure to bloodborne pathogens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, under OSHA’s General Duty Clause PPE is required for any potential infectious disease exposure. Employers must provide their employees with appropriate PPE and ensure that PPE is disposed or, if reusable, that it is properly cleaned or laundered, repaired and stored after use.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issues recommendations for when and what PPE should be used to prevent exposure to infectious diseases. This presentation will cover those recommendations, beginning with the hierarchy of safety and health controls.
71Factors Influencing PPE Selection Type of exposure anticipatedSplash/spray versus touchCategory of isolation precautionsDurability and appropriateness for the taskFitWhen you are selecting PPE, consider three key things.First is the type of anticipated exposure. This is determined by the type of anticipated exposure, such as touch, splashes or sprays, or large volumes of blood or body fluids that might penetrate the clothing. PPE selection, in particular the combination of PPE, also is determined by the category of isolation precautions a patient is on.Second, and very much linked to the first, is the durability and appropriateness of the PPE for the task. This will affect, for example, whether a gown or apron is selected for PPE, or, if a gown is selected, whether it needs to be fluid resistant, fluid proof, or neither.Third is fit. (optional question) How many of you have seen someone trying to work in PPE that is too small or large? PPE must fit the individual user, and it is up to the employer to ensure that all PPE are available in sizes appropriate for the workforce that must be protected.(Segue to next slide) With this as background, let’s now discuss how to select and use specific PPE. After that we’ll talk about which PPE is recommended for Standard Precautions and the various Isolation Precaution categories.
72PPE for Standard Precautions Gloves – Use when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, contaminated items; for touching mucus membranes and nonintact skinGowns – Use during procedures and patient care activities when contact of clothing/ exposed skin with blood/body fluids, secretions, or excretions is anticipatedUnder Standard Precautions, gloves should be used when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, or contaminated items and for touching mucous membranes and nonintact skin. A gown should be used during procedures and patient care activities when contact of clothing and/or exposed skin with blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions is anticipated. Aprons are sometimes used as PPE over scrubs, such as in hemodialysis centers when inserting a needle into a fistula.
73PPE for Standard Precautions Mask and goggles or a face shield – Use during patient care activities likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretionsMask and goggles or a face shield should be used during patient care activities that are likely to generate splashes and sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions.
74PPE for Enhanced Precautions Expanded Precautions includeContact PrecautionsDroplet PrecautionsAirborne Infection IsolationIn some instances, healthcare personnel are required to wear PPE in addition to that recommended for Standard Precautions. The three Expanded Precaution categories (formerly called Transmission-Based Precautions) where this applies are Contact and Droplet Precautions and Airborne Infection Isolation.
75Use of PPE for Enhanced Precautions Contact Precautions – Gown and gloves for contact with patient or environment of care (e.g., medical equipment, environmental surfaces)these will likely be required upon entering the patient’s environmentDroplet Precautions – Surgical masks within 3-6 feet of patientAirborne Infection Isolation – Particulate respirator*Contact Precautions requires gloves and gown for contact with the patient and/or the environment of care; in some instances, use of this PPE is recommended for even entering the patient’s environment. Droplet Precautions requires the use of a surgical mask, and Airborne Infection Isolation requires that only a respirator be worn.*Negative pressure isolation room also required
76Respiratory Protection Purpose – protect from inhalation of infectious aerosols (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis -TB)PPE types for respiratory protectionParticulate respiratorsHalf or full-face elastomeric respiratorsPowered air purifying respirators (PAPR)What is your facilities TB plan?Accept the patientTransfer the patientPPE also is used to protect healthcare workers’ from hazardous or infectious aerosols, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Respirators that filter the air before it is inhaled should be used for respiratory protection.The most commonly used respirators in healthcare settings are the N95, N99, or N100 particulate respirators. The device has a sub-micron filter capable of excluding particles that are less than 5 microns in diameter.Respirators are approved by the CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.Like other PPE, the selection of a respirator type must consider the nature of the exposure and risk involved. For example, N95 particulate respirators might be worn by personnel entering the room of a patient with infectious tuberculosis. However, if a bronchoscopy is performed on the patient, the healthcare provider might wear a higher level of respiratory protection, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or PAPR.
77Elements of a Respiratory Protection Program Medical evaluationAnnual Fit testingTrainingFit checking before usePrior to your using a respirator, your employer is required to have you medically evaluated to determine that it is safe for you to wear a respirator, to fit test you for the appropriate respirator size and type, and to train you on how and when to use a respirator. YOU are responsible for fit checking your respirator before use to make sure it has a proper seal.
78For additional information on respirators…. respsars.htmlThese websites can provide you with the most up-to-date information on respirators.
79Sequence* for Donning PPE Staff education:Gown firstMask or respiratorGoggles or face shieldGlovesThe gown should be donned first. The mask or respirator should be put on next and properly adjusted to fit; remember to fit check the respirator. The goggles or face shield should be donned next and the gloves are donned last. Keep in mind, the combination of PPE used, and therefore the sequence for donning, will be determined by the precautions that need to be taken.*The combination of PPE will affect sequence– be practical
80“Contaminated” and “Clean” Areas of PPE Contaminated – outside frontAreas of PPE that have or are likely to have been in contact with body sites, materials, or environmental surfaces where the infectious organism may resideClean – inside, outside back, ties on head and backAreas of PPE that are not likely to have been in contact with the infectious organismTo remove PEP safely, you must first be able to identify what sites are considered “clean” and what are “contaminated.” In general, the outside front and sleeves of the isolation gown and outside front of the goggles, mask, respirator and face shield are considered “contaminated,” regardless of whether there is visible soil. Also, the outside of the gloves are contaminated.The areas that are considered “clean” are the parts that will be touched when removing PPE. These include inside the gloves; inside and back of the gown, including the ties; and the ties, elastic, or ear pieces of the mask, goggles and face shield.
81Hand Hygiene Perform hand hygiene immediately after removing PPE If hands become visibly contaminated during PPE removal, wash hands before continuing to remove PPEWash hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand rubHand hygiene is the cornerstone of preventing infection transmission. You should perform hand hygiene immediately after removing PPE. If your hands become visibly contaminated during PPE removal, wash hands before continuing to remove PPE. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water or, if hands are not visibly contaminated, use an alcohol-based hand rub.* Ensure that hand hygiene facilities are available at the point needed, e.g., sink or alcohol-based hand sanitizer
82Key Points About PPEDon before contact with the patient, generally before entering the roomUse carefully – don’t spread contaminationRemove and discard carefully, either at the doorway or immediately outside patient room; remove mask/respirator outside roomImmediately perform hand hygieneThere are four key points to remember about PPE use. First, don it before you have any contact with the patient, generally before entering the room. Once you have PPE on, use it carefully to prevent spreading contamination. When you have completed your tasks, remove the PPE carefully and discard it in the receptacles provided. Then immediately perform hand hygiene before going on to the next patient.
83PPE Use in Healthcare Settings: Final Thoughts PPE is available to protect staff from exposure to infectious agents in the healthcare workplacePeriodically assess staff compliance to PPE usage and communicate the findings to staffThese are a few final thoughts before ending today’s presentation. Remember, PPE is available to protect you from exposure to infectious agents during healthcare. It is important that you know what type of PPE is necessary for the procedures you perform AND that you use it correctly.Thank you for your attention and participation. Are there any questions?
84Improper Disinfection And Sterilization Reuse of single-use items Multidose vialsContaminatedHandsPatientStaffVisitorsRadiationDiabetesSurgical incisionInvasive devices/LinesImmune StatusMedicationMedical ProceduresEnvironmentalSurfacesEnvironmentalCleaningEquipmentDisinfectionSterilizationPersonalProtectivePatient & StaffEducationHandHygieneReusableEquipmentSick VisitorsImproper PPE UseProlongedUse of linesContaminated medsImproper DisinfectionAnd SterilizationReuse of single-use itemsIll Employees
85Putting it all Together An Infection Preventionist is an investigator and an advocate for patients and staffAsk questionsBe observantFind solutionsWork as a team-you are the leader of manyStay current on national guidelinesNetwork-Where do you go for answers?
86References/Resources Speak to the relationship between Infection Prevention methods and reduced transmission of multidrug resistant organisms and C. difficile.Explain the importance of hand hygiene including barriers preventing proper hand hygieneDescribe environmental cleaning issues and assessment methods for cleaning validationDiscuss recommendations for equipment cleaning and disinfectionList the personal protective equipment used to prevent the spread of organismshttps://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hospital/hazards/univprec/univ.html