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5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Infection control the measures practiced in healthcare facilities to prevent and control the spread.

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Presentation on theme: "5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Infection control the measures practiced in healthcare facilities to prevent and control the spread."— Presentation transcript:

1 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Infection control the measures practiced in healthcare facilities to prevent and control the spread of disease. Microorganism or Microbe a living thing or organism that is so small that it can be seen only through a microscope.

2 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Infection the state resulting from pathogens invading the body and multiplying. Pathogens harmful microorganisms. Systemic infection an infection that is in the bloodstream and is spread throughout the body, causing general symptoms.

3 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Localized infection an infection that is confined to a specific location in the body and has local symptoms. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) infections that patients acquire within healthcare settings that result from treatment for other conditions. Medical asepsis the process of removing pathogens, or the state of being free of pathogens.

4 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Clean in health care, a condition in which objects are not contaminated with pathogens. Dirty in health care, a condition in which objects have been contaminated with pathogens. Surgical asepsis the state of being free of all microorganisms, not just pathogens; also called sterile technique.

5 5 Preventing Infection 1. Define “infection control” and related terms REMEMBER: Working to prevent the spread of disease is the responsibility of all care team members.

6 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Causative agent a pathogen or microorganism that causes disease. Reservoir a place where a pathogen lives and grows. Portal of exit any body opening on an infected person that allows pathogens to leave.

7 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Mode of transmission method of describing how a pathogen travels from one person to the next person. Direct contact touching an infected person or his secretions. Indirect contact touching something contaminated by an infected person. Portal of entry any body opening on an uninfected person that allows pathogens to enter.

8 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Mucous membranes the membranes that line body cavities, such as the mouth, nose, eyes, rectum, or genitals. Susceptible host an uninfected person who could get sick. Transmission passage or transfer. Infectious contagious.

9 5 Preventing Infection Transparency 5-1: The Chain of Infection

10 5 Preventing Infection 2. Describe the chain of infection REMEMBER: If one of the links in the chain of infection is broken—by washing hands, for example—then the spread of infection is stopped.

11 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Malnutrition poor nutrition due to improper diet. Dehydration a condition that results from inadequate fluid in the body.

12 5 Preventing Infection 3. Explain why the elderly are at a higher risk for infection and identify symptoms of an infection The elderly are at higher risk of infection due to Weakened immune systems Decreased circulation Slow wound healing Malnutrition Dehydration

13 5 Preventing Infection 3. Explain why the elderly are at a higher risk for infection and identify symptoms of an infection Factors affecting risk of infection in the elderly (cont’d.): Limited mobility Hospitalization Difficulty swallowing Incontinence Feeding tubes and other tubing

14 5 Preventing Infection 3. Explain why the elderly are at a higher risk for infection and identify symptoms of an infection Report these signs and symptoms of localized infection: Pain Redness Pus Swelling Drainage (fluid from a wound or cavity) Heat

15 5 Preventing Infection 3. Explain why the elderly are at a higher risk for infection and identify symptoms of an infection Report these signs and symptoms of systemic infection: Fever Chills Body aches Headache Drop in blood pressure Nausea, vomiting Weakness Mental confusion

16 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) a government agency under the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that issues information to protect the health of individuals and communities. Isolate to keep something separate, or by itself. Standard Precautions a method of infection control in which all blood, body fluids, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes are treated as if they were infected with an infectious disease.

17 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Body fluids under Standard Precautions, includes saliva, sputum (mucus coughed up), urine, feces, semen, vaginal secretions, and pus or other wound drainage; does not include sweat. Sharps needles or other sharp objects.

18 5 Preventing Infection 4. Describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and explain Standard Precautions Think about this question: Why should Standard Precautions be practiced with every resident in your care?

19 5 Preventing Infection 4. Describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and explain Standard Precautions Use these Standard Precautions measures with every resident: Wash hands. Wear gloves. Remove gloves immediately when finished with a procedure. Immediately wash skin surfaces. Wear a disposable gown when appropriate. Wear a mask and goggles when appropriate.

20 5 Preventing Infection 4. Describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and explain Standard Precautions Standard Precautions measures (cont’d.): Wear gloves when handling sharp objects. Never attempt to cap a needle or syringe. Avoid nicks and cuts. Bag all contaminated supplies. Clearly label body fluids. Dispose of contaminated waste properly.

21 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Hand hygiene washing hands with either plain or antiseptic soap and water and using alcohol-based hand rubs. Hand antisepsis washing hands with water and soap or other detergents that contain an antiseptic agent. Antimicrobial destroying or resisting pathogens.

22 5 Preventing Infection 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands REMEMBER: Although alcohol-based rubs are useful, it is still very important to wash hands with soap and water and not to rely solely on alcohol-based rubs.

23 5 Preventing Infection 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands NAs should wash their hands at all of the following times: Arrival at work Any time they are visibly soiled Before, between, and after all resident contact After contact with body fluids, mucous membranes, non-intact skin, dressings After handling contaminated items After contact with objects in resident’s room

24 5 Preventing Infection 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands Wash hands (cont’d.): Before and after touching meal trays Before and after feeding residents Before putting on gloves and after removing gloves Before getting clean linen After touching garbage or trash After picking up things from the floor After using the toilet

25 5 Preventing Infection 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands Wash hands (cont’d.): After blowing nose or sneezing into hand Before and after eating After smoking After touching areas on the body Before and after applying makeup After any contact with pets/pet care items Before leaving facility

26 5 Preventing Infection 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands REMEMBER: Handwashing is the single most important thing you can to do prevent the spread of disease.

27 Washing hands Equipment: soap, paper towels 1.Turn on water at sink. Keep your clothes dry, because moisture breeds bacteria. 2.Angle your arms down, holding your hands lower than your elbows. This prevents water from running up your arm. Wet hands and wrists thoroughly.

28 Washing hands (cont’d.) 3.Apply skin cleanser or soap to your hands. 4.Rub hands together and fingers between each other to create a lather. Lather all surfaces of your fingers and hands, including your wrists. Use friction for at least 20 seconds. Friction helps clean. 5.Clean your nails by rubbing them in palm of other hand.

29 Washing hands (cont’d.) 6.Being careful not to touch the sink, rinse thoroughly under running water. Rinse all surfaces of your hands and wrists. Run water down from wrists to fingertips. Do not run water over unwashed arms down to clean hands. 7.Use a clean, dry paper towel to dry all surfaces of your hands, wrists, and fingers. Do not wipe towel on unwashed forearms and then wipe clean hands. Dispose of towel without touching wastebasket. If your hands touch the sink or wastebasket, start over.

30 Washing hands (cont’d.) 8.Use a clean, dry paper towel to turn off the faucet. Do not contaminate your hands by touching the surface of the sink or faucet. 9.Dispose of used paper towel(s) in wastebasket immediately after shutting off faucet.

31 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Personal protective equipment (PPE) equipment that helps protect employees from serious workplace injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with workplace hazards. Perineal care care of the genitals and anal area. Non-intact skin skin that is broken by abrasions, cuts, rashes, acne, pimples, or boils.

32 5 Preventing Infection 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities Gloves should be worn at the following times: If you might touch blood or any body fluid During mouth care or care of any mucous membrane During perineal care When providing personal care on non-intact skin When providing personal care if NA has cuts on hands When shaving a resident When disposing of soiled linens, gowns, dressings, and pads

33 5 Preventing Infection 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities Gloves should be changed Immediately before contact with mucous membranes or broken skin If gloves become soiled, worn, or damaged

34 Putting on gloves 1.Wash your hands. 2.If you are right-handed, slide one glove on your left hand (reverse if left-handed). 3.With gloved hand, slide the other hand into the second glove. 4.Interlace fingers. Smooth out folds and create a comfortable fit.

35 Putting on gloves (cont’d.) 5.Carefully look for tears, holes, or discolored spots. Replace the glove if needed. 6.If wearing a gown, pull the cuff of the gloves over the sleeve of gown.

36 5 Preventing Infection 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities Gloves should be removed After use Before caring for another resident Before touching non-contaminated items or surfaces

37 Taking off gloves 1.Touch only the outside of one glove. Pull the first glove off by pulling down from the cuff. 2.As the glove comes off your hand, it should be turned inside out.

38 Taking off gloves (cont’d.) 3.With the fingertips of your gloved hand, hold the glove you just removed. With your ungloved hand, reach two fingers inside the remaining glove. Be careful not to touch any part of the outside of glove. 4.Pull down, turning this glove inside out and over the first glove as you remove it.

39 Taking off gloves (cont’d.) 5.You should now be holding one glove from its clean inner side. The other glove should be inside it. 6.Drop both gloves into the proper container. 7.Wash your hands.

40 5 Preventing Infection 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities REMEMBER: Gowns are worn during any procedure that is likely to cause body fluid splashes or sprays.

41 Putting on a gown 1.Wash your hands. 2.Open the gown. Hold out in front of you and allow gown to open. Do not shake it. Slip your arms into the sleeves and pull gown on.

42 Putting on a gown (cont’d.) 3.Tie the neck ties into a bow so they can be easily untied later. 4.Reach behind you. Pull the gown until it completely covers your clothing. Tie the back ties.

43 Putting on a gown (cont’d.) 5.Use a gown only once and then remove and discard it. When removing a gown, roll the dirty side in and away from the body. If your gown ever becomes wet or soiled, remove it. Check clothing and put on a new gown. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires non- permeable gowns—gowns that liquids cannot penetrate—when working in a bloody situation. 6.Put on your gloves after putting on gown.

44 5 Preventing Infection 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities Wear masks and goggles If there is risk of splashing body fluids or blood. Wear masks if respiratory illnesses are present.

45 Putting on mask and goggles 1.Wash your hands. 2.Pick up the mask by top strings or elastic strap. Be careful not to touch the mask where it touches your face.

46 Putting on mask and goggles (cont’d.) 3.Adjust the mask over your nose and mouth. Tie top strings first, then bottom strings. Masks must always be dry or they must be replaced. Never wear a mask hanging from only the bottom ties. 4.Put on the goggles. 5.Put on your gloves after putting on mask and goggles.

47 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Sterilization a measure that destroys all microorganisms, including pathogens. Disinfection process that kills pathogens, but not all microorganisms; it reduces the organism count to a level that is generally not considered infectious. Disposable only to be used once and then discarded.

48 5 Preventing Infection 7. List guidelines for handling equipment and linen Remember these guidelines for equipment, linen, and clothing: Prevent skin/mucous membrane contact. Prevent contamination of clothing. Prevent transfer of disease to other residents or environments. Do not use re-usable equipment until it has been cleaned properly. Dispose of all single-use equipment properly.

49 5 Preventing Infection 7. List guidelines for handling equipment and linen Guidelines for equipment, linen, and clothing (cont’d.): Clean and disinfect all environmental surfaces, beds, bedrails, all bedside equipment, and all frequently touched surfaces (doorknobs are a good example). Handle, transport, and process soiled linens and clothing in a way that prevents skin and mucous membrane exposure, contamination of clothing (hold linen away from uniform), and transfer of disease to other residents and environments. Bag soiled linen at point of origin. Sort soiled linen away from resident care areas. Place wet linen in leak-proof bags.

50 5 Preventing Infection 8. Explain how to handle spills Remember these guidelines for cleaning spills involving blood, body fluids, or glass: Put on gloves (industrial strength). Use proper product to absorb spill. Scoop up absorbed spill and dispose of it in designated container. Apply disinfectant. Use tools to pick up glass, never hands. Properly bag waste.

51 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Transmission-based (isolation) precautions method of infection control used when caring for persons who are infected or suspected of being infected with a disease; also called isolation precautions. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) microorganisms, mostly bacteria, that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents.

52 5 Preventing Infection Transparency 5-2: Airborne Precautions

53 5 Preventing Infection Transparency 5-3: Droplet Precautions

54 5 Preventing Infection Transparency 5-4: Contact Precautions

55 5 Preventing Infection 9. Explain transmission-based precautions Remember these guidelines for isolation: Transmission-based precautions always used in addition to Standard Precautions Nurses will set up the isolation unit. Use PPE as instructed. Do not wear PPE outside resident’s room and perform hand hygiene following removal of PPE. Do not share equipment between residents.

56 5 Preventing Infection 9. Explain transmission-based precautions Guidelines for isolation (cont’d.): Wear proper PPE and use disposable dishes, etc. as indicated when serving food and drink. Follow standard precautions in dealing with body waste removal. Wear proper PPE if required to take specimen. Reassure residents that the disease, not the person, is being isolated.

57 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Bloodborne pathogens microorganisms found in human blood, body fluid, draining wounds, and mucous membranes that can cause infection and disease in humans. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, the virus that can cause AIDS. Hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by infection. Jaundice a condition in which the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes appear yellow.

58 5 Preventing Infection 10. Define “bloodborne pathogens” and describe two major bloodborne diseases Bloodborne diseases are transmitted by Infected blood Infected semen or vaginal secretions Sexual contact Needle sharing Infected mothers Contact with infected blood or certain other body fluids in healthcare setting

59 5 Preventing Infection 10. Define “bloodborne pathogens” and describe two major bloodborne diseases REMEMBER: Standard Precautions, handwashing, isolation, and PPE are all used to prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens.

60 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) a federal government agency that makes rules to protect workers from hazards on the job. Bloodborne Pathogens Standard federal law that requires that healthcare facilities protect employees from bloodborne health hazards. Exposure control plan plan designed to eliminate or reduce employee exposure to infectious material.

61 5 Preventing Infection 11. Explain OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen Standard OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens Standard calls any of the following a “significant exposure”: Needle stick Mucous membrane contact Cut from an object containing potentially infectious body fluid Non-intact skin contact

62 5 Preventing Infection 11. Explain OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen Standard Employers must follow these guidelines: Written exposure control plan Proper PPE Biohazard containers Hepatitis B vaccine Warning labels Log of injuries from contaminated sharps In-service training

63 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Tuberculosis an airborne disease carried on very small mucous droplets suspended in the air. Latent TB type of tuberculosis in which the person carries the disease but does not show symptoms and cannot infect others; also known as TB infection. Active TB type of tuberculosis in which the person shows symptoms of the disease and can spread TB to others; also known as TB disease.

64 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) type of TB that can develop when a person with active TB does not take all the prescribed medication. Resistant state in which drugs no longer work to kill specific bacteria. Phlegm thick mucus from the respiratory passage.

65 5 Preventing Infection 12. Define “tuberculosis” and list infection control guidelines Signs and symptoms of TB include: Fatigue Loss of appetite Weight loss Slight fever and chills Night sweats Prolonged coughing Coughing up blood Chest pain Shortness of breath Trouble breathing

66 5 Preventing Infection 12. Define “tuberculosis” and list infection control guidelines Remember these guidelines for infection control when tuberculosis is present: Follow Standard Precautions and airborne precautions. Wear mask and gown. Handle sputum or phlegm carefully. Ensure proper ventilation. If resident is in AFB isolation room, open and close door slowly. Follow isolation procedures if ordered. Help resident remember to take medications.

67 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) microorganisms, mostly bacteria, that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial destroying or resisting pathogens. MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, an antibiotic-resistant infection often acquired by people in hospitals and other healthcare facilities who have weakened immune systems.

68 5 Preventing Infection Define the following terms: VRE vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, a genetically changed strain of enterococcus that originally developed in people who were exposed to the antibiotic vancomycin. Clostridium difficile (C-diff, C. difficile) bacterial illness that causes diarrhea and can cause colitis.

69 5 Preventing Infection 13. Define the terms “MRSA,” “VRE,” and “C. Difficile” MRSA is spread through Direct contact Indirect contact REMEMBER: Handwashing is the single most important measure to control the spread of MRSA.

70 5 Preventing Infection 13. Define the terms “MRSA,” “VRE,” and “C. Difficile” C. Difficile is spread through Direct contact with infected residents Contact with environmental surfaces contaminated with C. Difficile spores REMEMBER: C. Difficle is very difficult to kill. Handwashing will not kill the spores, but will wash them down the drain. Hand rubs may increase the risk of C. Difficile transmission because many feel a hand rub is all that is needed, but hand rubs do not kill C. Difficile spores. Proper handwashing is essential.

71 5 Preventing Infection 14. List employer and employee responsibilities for infection control REMEMBER: All facilities have policies and procedures in place regarding infection control. Know and follow your facility’s policies.

72 5 Preventing Infection 14. List employer and employee responsibilities for infection control Employers’ responsibilities regarding infection control include Infection control procedures and exposure control plan In-service education Written procedures to follow PPE for employees Free hepatitis B vaccine

73 5 Preventing Infection 14. List employer and employee responsibilities for infection control Employees’ responsibilities regarding infection control include Follow standard precautions. Follow facility’s policies and procedures. Follow care plans and assignments. Use PPE when appropriate. Take advantage of free hepatitis B vaccine. Immediately report exposure. Participate in education programs.


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