Presentation on theme: "Define the following terms:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Define the following terms: Infection controlthe measures practiced in healthcare facilities to prevent and control the spread of disease.Microorganism or Microbea living thing or organism that is so small that it can be seen only through a microscope.
2 Define the following terms: Infectionthe state resulting from pathogens invading the body and multiplying.Pathogensharmful microorganisms.Systemic infectionan infection that is in the bloodstream and is spread throughout the body, causing general symptoms.
3 Define the following terms: Localized infectionan infection that is confined to a specific location in the body and has local symptoms.Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)infections that patients acquire within healthcare settings that result from treatment for other conditions.Medical asepsisthe process of removing pathogens, or the state of being free of pathogens.
4 Define the following terms: Cleanin health care, a condition in which objects are not contaminated with pathogens.Dirtyin health care, a condition in which objects have been contaminated with pathogens.Surgical asepsisthe state of being free of all microorganisms, not just pathogens; also called sterile technique.
5 1. Define “infection control” and related terms REMEMBER:Working to prevent the spread of disease is the responsibility of all care team members.
6 Define the following terms: Causative agenta pathogen or microorganism that causes disease.Reservoira place where a pathogen lives and grows.Portal of exitany body opening on an infected person that allows pathogens to leave.
7 Define the following terms: Mode of transmissionmethod of describing how a pathogen travels from one person to the next person.Direct contacttouching an infected person or his secretions.Indirect contacttouching something contaminated by an infected person.Portal of entryany body opening on an uninfected person that allows pathogens to enter.
8 Define the following terms: Mucous membranesthe membranes that line body cavities, such as the mouth, nose, eyes, rectum, or genitals.Susceptible hostan uninfected person who could get sick.Transmissionpassage or transfer.Infectiouscontagious.
10 2. Describe the chain of infection REMEMBER:If one of the links in the chain of infection is broken—by washing hands, for example—then the spread of infection is stopped.
11 Define the following terms: Malnutritionpoor nutrition due to improper diet.Dehydrationa condition that results from inadequate fluid in the body.
12 3. Explain why the elderly are at a higher risk for infection and identify symptoms of an infection The elderly are at higher risk of infection due toWeakened immune systemsDecreased circulationSlow wound healingMalnutritionDehydration
13 3. Explain why the elderly are at a higher risk for infection and identify symptoms of an infection Factors affecting risk of infection in the elderly (cont’d.):Limited mobilityHospitalizationDifficulty swallowingIncontinenceFeeding tubes and other tubing
14 3. Explain why the elderly are at a higher risk for infection and identify symptoms of an infection Report these signs and symptoms of localized infection:PainRednessPusSwellingDrainage (fluid from a wound or cavity)Heat
15 3. Explain why the elderly are at a higher risk for infection and identify symptoms of an infection Report these signs and symptoms of systemic infection:FeverChillsBody achesHeadacheDrop in blood pressureNausea, vomitingWeaknessMental confusion
16 Define the following terms: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)a government agency under the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that issues information to protect the health of individuals and communities.Isolateto keep something separate, or by itself.Standard Precautionsa method of infection control in which all blood, body fluids, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes are treated as if they were infected with an infectious disease.
17 Define the following terms: Body fluidsunder Standard Precautions, includes saliva, sputum (mucus coughed up), urine, feces, semen, vaginal secretions, and pus or other wound drainage; does not include sweat.Sharpsneedles or other sharp objects.
18 4. Describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and explain Standard Precautions Think about this question:Why should Standard Precautions be practiced with every resident in your care?
19 4. Describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and explain Standard Precautions Use these Standard Precautions measures with every resident:Wash hands.Wear gloves.Remove gloves immediately when finished with a procedure.Immediately wash skin surfaces.Wear a disposable gown when appropriate.Wear a mask and goggles when appropriate.
20 4. Describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and explain Standard Precautions Standard Precautions measures (cont’d.):Wear gloves when handling sharp objects.Never attempt to cap a needle or syringe.Avoid nicks and cuts.Bag all contaminated supplies.Clearly label body fluids.Dispose of contaminated waste properly.
21 Define the following terms: Hand hygienewashing hands with either plain or antiseptic soap and water and using alcohol-based hand rubs.Hand antisepsiswashing hands with water and soap or other detergents that contain an antiseptic agent.Antimicrobialdestroying or resisting pathogens.
22 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands REMEMBER:Although alcohol-based rubs are useful, it is still very important to wash hands with soap and water and not to rely solely on alcohol-based rubs.
23 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands NAs should wash their hands at all of the following times:Arrival at workAny time they are visibly soiledBefore, between, and after all resident contactAfter contact with body fluids, mucous membranes, non-intact skin, dressingsAfter handling contaminated itemsAfter contact with objects in resident’s room
24 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands Wash hands (cont’d.):Before and after touching meal traysBefore and after feeding residentsBefore putting on gloves and after removing glovesBefore getting clean linenAfter touching garbage or trashAfter picking up things from the floorAfter using the toilet
25 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands Wash hands (cont’d.):After blowing nose or sneezing into handBefore and after eatingAfter smokingAfter touching areas on the bodyBefore and after applying makeupAfter any contact with pets/pet care itemsBefore leaving facility
26 5. Explain the term “hand hygiene” and identify when to wash hands REMEMBER:Handwashing is the single most important thing you can to do prevent the spread of disease.
27 Equipment: soap, paper towels Washing handsEquipment: soap, paper towelsTurn on water at sink. Keep your clothes dry, because moisture breeds bacteria.Angle your arms down, holding your hands lower than your elbows. This prevents water from running up your arm. Wet hands and wrists thoroughly.
28 Washing hands (cont’d.) Apply skin cleanser or soap to your hands.Rub hands together and fingers between each other to create a lather. Lather all surfaces of your fingers and hands, including your wrists. Use friction for at least 20 seconds. Friction helps clean.Clean your nails by rubbing them in palm of other hand.
29 Washing hands (cont’d.) Being careful not to touch the sink, rinse thoroughly under running water. Rinse all surfaces of your hands and wrists. Run water down from wrists to fingertips. Do not run water over unwashed arms down to clean hands.Use a clean, dry paper towel to dry all surfaces of your hands, wrists, and fingers. Do not wipe towel on unwashed forearms and then wipe clean hands. Dispose of towel without touching wastebasket. If your hands touch the sink or wastebasket, start over.
30 Washing hands (cont’d.) Use a clean, dry paper towel to turn off the faucet. Do not contaminate your hands by touching the surface of the sink or faucet.Dispose of used paper towel(s) in wastebasket immediately after shutting off faucet.
31 Define the following terms: Personal protective equipment (PPE)equipment that helps protect employees from serious workplace injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with workplace hazards.Perineal carecare of the genitals and anal area.Non-intact skinskin that is broken by abrasions, cuts, rashes, acne, pimples, or boils.
32 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities Gloves should be worn at the following times:If you might touch blood or any body fluidDuring mouth care or care of any mucous membraneDuring perineal careWhen providing personal care on non-intact skinWhen providing personal care if NA has cuts on handsWhen shaving a residentWhen disposing of soiled linens, gowns, dressings, and pads
33 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities Gloves should be changedImmediately before contact with mucous membranes or broken skinIf gloves become soiled, worn, or damaged
34 With gloved hand, slide the other hand into the second glove. Putting on glovesWash your hands.If you are right-handed, slide one glove on your left hand (reverse if left-handed).With gloved hand, slide the other hand into the second glove.Interlace fingers. Smooth out folds and create a comfortable fit.
35 Putting on gloves (cont’d.) Carefully look for tears, holes, or discolored spots. Replace the glove if needed.If wearing a gown, pull the cuff of the gloves over the sleeve of gown.
36 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities Gloves should be removedAfter useBefore caring for another residentBefore touching non-contaminated items or surfaces
37 As the glove comes off your hand, it should be turned inside out. Taking off glovesTouch only the outside of one glove. Pull the first glove off by pulling down from the cuff.As the glove comes off your hand, it should be turned inside out.
38 Taking off gloves (cont’d.) With the fingertips of your gloved hand, hold the glove you just removed. With your ungloved hand, reach two fingers inside the remaining glove. Be careful not to touch any part of the outside of glove.Pull down, turning this glove inside out and over the first glove as you remove it.
39 Taking off gloves (cont’d.) You should now be holding one glove from its clean inner side. The other glove should be inside it.Drop both gloves into the proper container.Wash your hands.
40 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities REMEMBER:Gowns are worn during any procedure that is likely to cause body fluid splashes or sprays.
41 Putting on a gownWash your hands.Open the gown. Hold out in front of you and allow gown to open. Do not shake it. Slip your arms into the sleeves and pull gown on.
42 Putting on a gown (cont’d.) Tie the neck ties into a bow so they can be easily untied later.Reach behind you. Pull the gown until it completely covers your clothing. Tie the back ties.
43 Putting on a gown (cont’d.) Use a gown only once and then remove and discard it. When removing a gown, roll the dirty side in and away from the body. If your gown ever becomes wet or soiled, remove it. Check clothing and put on a new gown. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires non- permeable gowns—gowns that liquids cannot penetrate—when working in a bloody situation.Put on your gloves after putting on gown.
44 6. Discuss the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in facilities Wear masks and gogglesIf there is risk of splashing body fluids or blood.Wear masks if respiratory illnesses are present.
45 Putting on mask and goggles Wash your hands.Pick up the mask by top strings or elastic strap. Be careful not to touch the mask where it touches your face.
46 Putting on mask and goggles (cont’d.) Adjust the mask over your nose and mouth. Tie top strings first, then bottom strings. Masks must always be dry or they must be replaced. Never wear a mask hanging from only the bottom ties.Put on the goggles.Put on your gloves after putting on mask and goggles.
47 Define the following terms: Sterilizationa measure that destroys all microorganisms, including pathogens.Disinfectionprocess that kills pathogens, but not all microorganisms; it reduces the organism count to a level that is generally not considered infectious.Disposableonly to be used once and then discarded.
48 7. List guidelines for handling equipment and linen Remember these guidelines for equipment, linen, and clothing:Prevent skin/mucous membrane contact.Prevent contamination of clothing.Prevent transfer of disease to other residents or environments.Do not use re-usable equipment until it has been cleaned properly.Dispose of all single-use equipment properly.
49 7. List guidelines for handling equipment and linen Guidelines for equipment, linen, and clothing (cont’d.):Clean and disinfect all environmental surfaces, beds, bedrails, all bedside equipment, and all frequently touched surfaces (doorknobs are a good example).Handle, transport, and process soiled linens and clothing in a way that prevents skin and mucous membrane exposure, contamination of clothing (hold linen away from uniform), and transfer of disease to other residents and environments.Bag soiled linen at point of origin.Sort soiled linen away from resident care areas.Place wet linen in leak-proof bags.
50 8. Explain how to handle spills Remember these guidelines for cleaning spills involving blood, body fluids, or glass:Put on gloves (industrial strength).Use proper product to absorb spill.Scoop up absorbed spill and dispose of it in designated container.Apply disinfectant.Use tools to pick up glass, never hands.Properly bag waste.
51 Define the following terms: Transmission-based (isolation) precautionsmethod of infection control used when caring for persons who are infected or suspected of being infected with a disease; also called isolation precautions.Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)microorganisms, mostly bacteria, that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents.
55 9. Explain transmission-based precautions Remember these guidelines for isolation:Transmission-based precautions always used in addition to Standard PrecautionsNurses will set up the isolation unit.Use PPE as instructed. Do not wear PPE outside resident’s room and perform hand hygiene following removal of PPE.Do not share equipment between residents.
56 9. Explain transmission-based precautions Guidelines for isolation (cont’d.):Wear proper PPE and use disposable dishes, etc. as indicated when serving food and drink.Follow standard precautions in dealing with body waste removal.Wear proper PPE if required to take specimen.Reassure residents that the disease, not the person, is being isolated.
57 Define the following terms: Bloodborne pathogensmicroorganisms found in human blood, body fluid, draining wounds, and mucous membranes that can cause infection and disease in humans.HIVstands for human immunodeficiency virus, the virus that can cause AIDS.Hepatitisinflammation of the liver caused by infection.Jaundicea condition in which the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes appear yellow.
58 10. Define “bloodborne pathogens” and describe two major bloodborne diseases Bloodborne diseases are transmitted byInfected bloodInfected semen or vaginal secretionsSexual contactNeedle sharingInfected mothersContact with infected blood or certain other body fluids in healthcare setting
59 10. Define “bloodborne pathogens” and describe two major bloodborne diseases REMEMBER:Standard Precautions, handwashing, isolation, and PPE are all used to prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens.
60 Define the following terms: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)a federal government agency that makes rules to protect workers from hazards on the job.Bloodborne Pathogens Standardfederal law that requires that healthcare facilities protect employees from bloodborne health hazards.Exposure control planplan designed to eliminate or reduce employee exposure to infectious material.
61 11. Explain OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen Standard OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens Standard calls any of the following a “significant exposure”:Needle stickMucous membrane contactCut from an object containing potentially infectious body fluidNon-intact skin contact
62 11. Explain OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen Standard Employers must follow these guidelines:Written exposure control planProper PPEBiohazard containersHepatitis B vaccineWarning labelsLog of injuries from contaminated sharpsIn-service training
63 Define the following terms: Tuberculosisan airborne disease carried on very small mucous droplets suspended in the air.Latent TBtype of tuberculosis in which the person carries the disease but does not show symptoms and cannot infect others; also known as TB infection.Active TBtype of tuberculosis in which the person shows symptoms of the disease and can spread TB to others; also known as TB disease.
64 Define the following terms: Multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB)type of TB that can develop when a person with active TB does not take all the prescribed medication.Resistantstate in which drugs no longer work to kill specific bacteria.Phlegmthick mucus from the respiratory passage.
65 12. Define “tuberculosis” and list infection control guidelines Signs and symptoms of TB include:FatigueLoss of appetiteWeight lossSlight fever and chillsNight sweatsProlonged coughingCoughing up bloodChest painShortness of breathTrouble breathing
66 12. Define “tuberculosis” and list infection control guidelines Remember these guidelines for infection control when tuberculosis is present:Follow Standard Precautions and airborne precautions.Wear mask and gown.Handle sputum or phlegm carefully.Ensure proper ventilation.If resident is in AFB isolation room, open and close door slowly.Follow isolation procedures if ordered.Help resident remember to take medications.
67 Define the following terms: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)microorganisms, mostly bacteria, that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents.Antimicrobialdestroying or resisting pathogens.MRSAstands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, an antibiotic-resistant infection often acquired by people in hospitals and other healthcare facilities who have weakened immune systems.
68 Define the following terms: VREvancomycin-resistant enterococcus, a genetically changed strain of enterococcus that originally developed in people who were exposed to the antibiotic vancomycin.Clostridium difficile (C-diff, C. difficile)bacterial illness that causes diarrhea and can cause colitis.
69 13. Define the terms “MRSA,” “VRE,” and “C. Difficile” MRSA is spread throughDirect contactIndirect contactREMEMBER:Handwashing is the single most important measure to control the spread of MRSA.
70 13. Define the terms “MRSA,” “VRE,” and “C. Difficile” C. Difficile is spread throughDirect contact with infected residentsContact with environmental surfaces contaminated withC. Difficile sporesREMEMBER:C. Difficle is very difficult to kill. Handwashing will not kill the spores, but will wash them down the drain. Hand rubs may increase the risk of C. Difficile transmission because many feel a hand rub is all that is needed, but hand rubs do not kill C. Difficile spores. Proper handwashing is essential.
71 14. List employer and employee responsibilities for infection control REMEMBER:All facilities have policies and procedures in place regarding infection control. Know and follow your facility’s policies.
72 14. List employer and employee responsibilities for infection control Employers’ responsibilities regarding infection control includeInfection control procedures and exposure control planIn-service educationWritten procedures to followPPE for employeesFree hepatitis B vaccine
73 14. List employer and employee responsibilities for infection control Employees’ responsibilities regarding infection control includeFollow standard precautions.Follow facility’s policies and procedures.Follow care plans and assignments.Use PPE when appropriate.Take advantage of free hepatitis B vaccine.Immediately report exposure.Participate in education programs.