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Innovation systems and technological transitions – towards a common framework Jochen Markard Innovation Research in Utility Sectors (CIRUS) Workshop Zurich,

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Presentation on theme: "Innovation systems and technological transitions – towards a common framework Jochen Markard Innovation Research in Utility Sectors (CIRUS) Workshop Zurich,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Innovation systems and technological transitions – towards a common framework Jochen Markard Innovation Research in Utility Sectors (CIRUS) Workshop Zurich, April 16, 2007

2 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 2 Background  Literature on innovation systems and technological transitions  Largely separate strands of literature  Common theoretical roots  Directed at closely related research questions  Aim of the talk  Focus on TIS and MLP  Concentrate on complementary key issues  Output towards TIS concept

3 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 3 Two perspectives on transformation  Focus on specific innovation processes  How do radical innovations emerge and develop?  What drives, what hinders a new technology?  How to create supportive institutions or to stabilize emerging paths?  Focus on broader transition processes  How do socio-technical transitions come about?  What are the drivers, the barriers?  How to destabilize established paths and enhance variety?

4 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 4 Perspectives and frameworks  Focus on specific innovation processes  Strategic niche management  Technological innovation systems (TIS)  Focus on broader transition processes  Technological regimes and paradigms  Multi-level perspective (MLP)  Ideally: Complementary empirical insights  Open question: towards a common framework or keep concepts separately?

5 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 5 TIS: open issues  How to define and delineate a system?  Focus: national, sectoral, technological  Level of aggregation / delineation  System concept (overall function)  Are there minimum conditions for a system?  How to conceptualize the environment?  TIS life cycle - beginning and ending?  How to deal with actors, actor strategies and agency?

6 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 6 Focus: national, sectoral, technological NSI 1 NSI 2 NSI 3 SSI 1 SSI 2 SSI 3 SSI 4

7 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 7 Focus: national, sectoral, technological TIS often have an internation or global character (Hekkert et al., in press) but national / regional analyses may still be justified (Bergek et al. 2005) NSI 1 NSI 2 NSI 3 SSI 1 SSI 2 SSI 3 TS 1 SSI 4 TS 1

8 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 8 Technological innovation systems  How to define and delineate a system?  Focus: national, sectoral, technological  Level of aggregation / delineation  System concept (overall function)  Are there minimum conditions for a system?  How to conceptualize the environment?  TIS life cycle - beginning and ending?  How to deal with actors, actor strategies and agency?

9 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 9 UPS Base load power supply … SOFC PAFC Level of aggregation Cell stack Fuel reformer DC/AC converter Control & monitoring Heat exchanger Peak load heating …auxiliary components Metering devices

10 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 10 System delineation  Level of aggregation (  fuel cells example)  one knowledge field – related fields  broad range of applications – specific one  Level of analysis  here: technology / knowledge field vs. product (Carlsson et al. 2002, Bergek et al. 2005)  Two general approaches  Delineation depends on the research question Bergek et al. 2005: boundary setting as a process  ‘System boundaries are somehow out there‘ Carlsson et al. 2002: e.g. technology distance indicators; Edquist 2005: define system boundaries in terms of activities

11 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 11 Technological innovation systems  How to define and delineate a system?  Focus: national, sectoral, technological  Level of aggregation / delineation  System concept (overall function)  Are there minimum conditions for a system?  How to conceptualize the environment?  TIS life cycle - beginning and ending?  How to deal with actors, actor strategies and agency?

12 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 12 System concept  Technological system “network of agents interacting in a specific economic / industrial area under a particular institutional infrastructure and involved in the generation, diffusion and utilization of technology” (Carlsson & Stankiewicz 1991)  generation of (new) technology  includes radical novelties  diffusion and use of technology  focus on existing technology, incremental improvements  „innovation process“ perspective vs. „production process“ perspective

13 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 13 Technological innovation systems  How to define and delineate a system?  Focus: national, sectoral, technological  Level of aggregation / delineation  System concept (overall function)  Are there minimum conditions for a system?  How to conceptualize the environment?  TIS Life cycle - beginning and ending?  How to deal with actors, actor strategies and agency?

14 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 14 TIS minimum conditions (draft)  Variety of different actors (different strategies, different capabilities)  Division of innovation tasks among actors (supply chain, networks)  Variety of institutions that have emerged from within the system  Early market(s) and competition  Several application contexts or niches

15 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 15 Technological innovation systems  How to define and delineate a system?  Focus: national, sectoral, technological  Level of aggregation / delineation  System concept (overall function)  Are there minimum conditions for a system?  How to conceptualize the environment?  TIS Life cycle - beginning and ending?  How to deal with actors, actor strategies and agency?

16 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 16 The environment of the TIS Focal technological innovation system Complementary TIS Regime 1 Regime 2 Landscape Competing TIS

17 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 17 Technological innovation systems  How to define and delineate a system?  Focus: national, sectoral, technological  Level of aggregation / delineation  System concept (overall function)  Are there minimum conditions for a system?  How to conceptualize the environment?  TIS Life cycle - beginning and ending?  How to deal with actors, actor strategies and agency?

18 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 18 TIS: beginning and ending Degree of technology diffusion Time Minimum conditions fulfilled TIS stabilized niche, network TIS regime SSI

19 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 19 Technological innovation systems  How to define and delineate a system?  Focus: national, sectoral, technological  Level of aggregation / delineation  System concept (overall function)  Are there minimum conditions for a system?  How to conceptualize the environment?  TIS Life cycle - beginning and ending?  How to deal with actors, actor strategies and agency?

20 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 20 Facilitate actor oriented analyses  TIS: actors are key element, different from institutions  Definition of development goal can be used to identify „system actors“ a set of networks of actors and institutions that jointly interact in a specific technological field and contribute to the generation, diffusion and utilization of variants of a new technology and/or a new product  Analysis of innovation activities  e.g. on the basis of innov. strategies  Analysis of innovation potential  e.g. on the basis of resources (and strategic intentions)

21 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 21 Wrap up  TIS – MLP: common interests, similar challenges (e.g. delineation) and different weaknesses  Elements of both concepts can be defined in a way as to complement each other  MLP  TIS  Elaborate conceptualization of system environment  TIS  MLP  Explicit actor concept  Mutual benefits  Delineation issues  Qualitative differences between niche, TIS and regime

22 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 22 Relation of concepts SSI 1 TS 1 SSI 2 TS 2

23 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 23 Comparison of concepts

24 Jochen Markard April 16, 2007 Zurich Workshop 24 How to define a regime?  Proxy for sectors? (Geels 2006)  electricity regime, water supply regime, housing regime  Highlight societal function  ‘Conceptual use’  Distinguish characteristics of ‘competing’ regimes, e.g. private automobile regime vs. public mass transport  Compare regime and niche characteristics  Challenge: different levels of aggregation  Regime of centralized electricity supply  Nuclear power vs. fossil fuel vs. renewables regime  Wind power regime, onshore vs. offshore regime...


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