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The need for complementary approaches Fred Steward.

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Presentation on theme: "The need for complementary approaches Fred Steward."— Presentation transcript:

1 The need for complementary approaches Fred Steward

2 A broad & inclusive concept of transition A systemic view of innovation in terms of a diversity of actors and the embrace of both social and technological change A definition of technology in relation to some definition of societal use or ‘function’ A concept of significant change in the sense of a clearly defined shift from one state to a new state Sustainability goals

3 Alternative theorisations of the dynamics of transition Multilevel perspective regime & niche Technology innovation system new technology system Share an evolutionary framework And others?

4 Explaining variation & selection MLP Nested hierarchy Interaction between levels TIS Emergent properties System attributes

5 Inviting wider participation Two strands in science, technology & innovation studies that are underrepresented Actor networks – Latour ‘flat network’ associational approach Innovation management – interactional agency based strategies

6 Situating technology systems 1 The Freeman legacy - New technology systems unemployment & technical innovation Alternative theory to socially induced clusters of innovation (Mensch) Role of scientific discovery Technical & social constellations Natural technology trajectories – mechanisation, electrification, automation

7 Situating technology systems 2 Freeman & Perez 1988 Incremental Radical Technology System – pervasive across sectors, radical/incremental technology + organisational/managerial Techno-economic paradigm

8 Applicability to sustainability transitions 1996 Greening of technology - Freeman problems with…systemic model of innovation world wide transition to a "green technoeconomic paradigm“ Learning from the linear model

9 Limits to a technology focus The current policy context Generic technologies

10 Tony Blair - November 2004 ‘we need a green technological revolution’

11 George Bush – 20 April 2006 the technological revolution that we're pushing hard… so that we can be good stewards of the environment.

12 Wen Jiabao October 2005 A global revolution in science and technology… Building an environment friendly society & sustainable development

13 The new revolutionary technological determinism Emerging bio & nano technologies will deliver radical sustainability Key policy issue is research investment in new emerging technologies The knowledge economy/ sustainable society virtuous circle Relies on technology push model

14 Ecological modernisation Emerging technologies are more sustainable Upstream support is main policy concern Consumption downplayed

15 An alternative innovation focus The sociotechnical Production and consumption Reflexive action vs system design

16 Actor orientation Reflexive action vs system design Heterogeneous engineer, system builder, path creator Innovative entrepreneur, innovation journey

17 Organisational actors in transitions Niche actors (Kemp, Geels) Path creators (Garud & Karnoe) Disruptive innovators (Christensen)

18 Business research on organisation & strategy Beyond the ‘iron cage’ or ‘rational actor’ Strategic choice (Child) Emergent strategy (Mintzberg) Sensemaking (Weick) Communities of practice (Wenger)

19 Innovation & the business organisation Intersection of: Organisation studies – Burns & Stalker, Lawrence & Lorsch - focus on firm, organic structure Science & technology studies - Freeman, Marquis – focus on innovation, the interactive model

20 The new interactionism Paradox & dilemma – Peters, Kanter Networks – Allen, Granovetter Construction & association – Pinch, Latour The power of communicative action

21 Embracing cognitive diversity Combining different cognitive perspectives Prefigured path (life cycle) Purposeful enactment (teleology) Conflict and synthesis (dialectics) Competitive selection (evolution) Van de Ven

22 The ambidextrous organisation Tushman, Leonard Barton, Christensen The innovator’s dilemma Exploitation vs exploration Continuity vs change Capabilities vs rigidities

23 Networks – relational capabilities Network as general process Strong & weak ties Homophily & heterophily Boundary spanners & gatekeepers Network builders

24 The power of discourse Storylines, narratives, arguments Explain strategic choice within firms and their capacity to shape futures

25 Emerging innovation networks Techno vs eco focus Incumbents & emergents Different consequences for variety generation No natural trajectories of dematerialisation, decarbonisation

26 An example Contrast between emerging networks around sustainability of print on paper Forestry GM trees / community forestry Paper manufacture Nanoparticles / deinking fibre recovery Publishing E-book / paperless practices

27 A situated emergent network approach Focus on sustainability claims for specific innovations within emerging generic technologies Capture innovations emerging in the market and identify commercial performance claims Map the emerging sociotechnical network and its dynamics Use results for reflexive engagement

28 Nanoparticle network

29 Results It seems possible to capture early emergent networks by following the actors Focus is defined by actors and varies in emphasis on technology and ecology Variety generation gives different emphasis to sustainability Influence through key actors


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