Presentation on theme: "Mummification & Afterlife. Mummification Ancient Egyptians mummified the bodies of their dead royalty. It was very important to their religious beliefs."— Presentation transcript:
Mummification Ancient Egyptians mummified the bodies of their dead royalty. It was very important to their religious beliefs that the human body be preserved. They believed they would need their body in the afterlife. They developed the mummification process to preserve their bodies. The process lasted up to 70 days and was made up of two parts: embalming and wrapping.
Who Mummifies a Body Only high priests were allowed to mummify a body.
Step 1 Wash the body with good smelling palm wines and rinse with water from the Nile.
Step 2 A hook is then inserted up the nose to remove the brains. The hook breaks up the brain, it is removed through the nostrils, and thrown away.
Step 3 C ut a slit on the left side of the body and removed internal organs including the liver, stomach, lungs and intestines. Only the heart remains in the body. The body will need it in the afterlife.
Step 3 (Continued) – The organs are placed in canopic jars. – The canopic jars are then placed in a canopic chest.
Step 4 The body is then covered and stuffed with natron salt which will help to dry out the body. The body is left to dry for about 40 days. Natron is a salt that is found around the Nile River.
Step 4 (continued) After the body dries out it is removed from the natron and stuffed with sawdust, linen, and sand to shape the body.
Step 5 The body is wrapped in about 400 yards of linen and placed in a sarcophagus (coffin).
Step 6 Place put a funeral mask on the mummy. Lastly, place the mummy in the tomb.
How to Wrap a Mummy First, the head and neck are wrapped with linen. The fingers and toes are wrapped individually. The arms and legs are wrapped separately from the body.
How to Wrap a Mummy (continued) A cloth is then wrapped over the whole body and a painting of Osiris is Painted on top.
Amulets In the layers the embalmers place amulets to protect the body in the underworld. The 'isis knot' amulet protects the body and ' Plummet' represents personal balance.
The Book of the Dead Priests read out spells while the mummy is being wrapped. Papyrus scroll filled with spells from The Book of the Dead is placed in the mummies hands.
Opening of the Mouth Ceremony A funeral is then held for the dead person before the body is laid to rest. They have a ritual called “the opening of the mouth”. This allows the dead person eat and drink one last time.
To the Egyptians, death was not seen as the last stage of life. Before the mummy can reach the underworld it has to pass through seven gates, aided by the magic spells inscribed upon the funerary objects, then the dead person arrives in the presence of Osiris (god of the underworld).
The Afterlife (continued) Osiris then performs a ceremony called the 'weighing of the heart’. The heart of the dead person is weighed on a scale by the jackal headed god Anubis (god of the dead) against the feather of Ma'at (goddess of truth).
The Afterlife (continued) Balancing the scale meant immortality. If the scale did not balance, then Ammitt (crocodile headed god) would eat the heart, and Seth, murderer of Osiris ate the rest of the body.