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 FUNCTION ?

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Presentation on theme: " FUNCTION ?"— Presentation transcript:

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2  FUNCTION ?

3 http://missmsoledad.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/gametogenesis.jpg

4 http://www.stanford.edu/group/Urchin/GIFS/meiosis1.gif

5  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FORMATION OF SPERM AND EGG ?

6  SYNAPSIS: HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES PAIR UP AND INTERTWINE: FORMS TETRADS  CROSS OVER COMMON

7  HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOME PAIRS SEPARATE

8  SAME AS MITOSIS WITH REPLICATED PAIRS

9  PROPHASE II: SAME AS MITOSIS  ANAPHASE II: CENTROMERES SEPARATE RELEASING CHROMATIDS: NOW CHROMOSOMES  TELOPHASE II:

10  PRODUCE/MAINTAIN SPERM CELLS  TRANSPORT TO FEMALE TRACT  SECRETE MALE SEX HORMONES

11  1-2 MONTHS DROP FROM NEAR KIDNEYS TO SCROTUM ?  STIMULATED BY TESTOSTERONE  GUBERNACULUM  CRYPTORCHIDISM

12  TUNICA ALBUGINEA  MEDIASTINUM TESTIS: CONNECTIVE TISSUE (SEPTA) DIVIDE TESTIS TO 250 LOBULES  LOBULE: 4 SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES UNITE TO RETE TESTIS IN MEDIASTINUM TO EPIDIDYMIS TO DUCTUS DEFERENS  SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES: SPECIALIZED STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM  SPERMATOGENIC CELLS: ?  INTERSTITIAL CELLS: CELLS OF LEYDIG: MALE SEX HORMONES

13  SUSTENACULAR CELLS: SERTOLI CELLS: COLUMNAR; SUPPORT, NOURISH, REGULATE SPERMATAOGENIC CELLS aboutcancer.com

14  MALE EMBRYO: HORMONES ACTIVATE SPERMATOGONIA: MITOSIS FORMS:  A CELLS (SAME)  B CELLS: PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE  SPERMATOGENESIS WAITS TILL PUBERTY  MORE TESTOSTERONE: NEW MITOSIS; MEIOSIS  2 SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES  SPERMATIDS HOW MANY?  DURING SPERMATOGENESIS CELLS MOVE TOWARDS LUMEN  BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER: TIGHT JUNCTIONS OF SUSTENACULAR CELLS WHY?  SPERMATOGENSIS OCCURS CONTINUOUSLY

15  SPERM CELLS  LUMEN  RETE TESTIS  EPIDIDYMUS: COLLECT/MATURE http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=sperm+cell&view

16  0.06 mm  ACROMOSOME: ENZYMES TO ENTER EGG  HYALURONIDASE  MIDPIECE: MITOCHONDRIA ?  TAIL: FLAGELLUM: MICROTUBULES

17  6 METERS LONG  PSEUDOSTRATIFIEDCOLUMNAR, NONMOTILE CILIA SECRETE FLUID WITH GLYCOGEN FOR ?  PERISTALTSIS MOVES SPERM THROUGH AS MATURE

18  VASA DEFERENTIA/ VAS DEFERENS  45 cm  PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM  THROUGH INGUINAL CANAL  END: DILATES TO AMPULLA  JOINS SEMINAL VESSICLE DUCT TO EJACULATORY DUCT TO PROSTATE GLAND TO URETHRA

19  CONVOLUTED SAC, 5 cm  GLANDULAR TISSUE LINING: SECRETES SLIGHTLY ALKALINE FLUID WITH FRUCTOSE AND PROSTAGLANDINS  PROTECT SPERM AS IT TRAVELS  ENERGY  STIMULATE CONTRACTIONS OF FEMALE TRACT ?

20 http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://rpmedia.ask.com/

21  4 x 3 cm  BRANCHED TUBULAR GLANDS SEPARATED BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE SEPTA AND SMOOTH MUSCLE SECRETE INTO URETHRA  THIN, MILKY FLUID  ALKALINE VS. METABOLIC WASTE OF SPERM & FEMALE TRACT  HELPS MOBILIZE SPERM SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTS FOR SECRETION WHEN SEMEN ENTERS

22  1 cm  URETHRA BELOW PROSTRATE  TUBES OF GLANDULAR EPITHELIAL TISSUE  SECRETES MUCUS LIKE FLUID WHEN STIMULATION OCCURS FOR SOME LUBRICATION

23 nursingcrib.com

24  2-5 mm  120 MILLION SPERM PER mm  SPERM CELLS; FLUID FROM SEMINAL VESSICLES, PROSTATE GLAND AND BULBOURETHRAL GLAND  ALKALINE, PROSTAGLANDINS AND NUTRIENTS  CAPACITATION  LAST WEEKS IN MALE, CAN ONLY FERTILIZE FOR 1-2 DAYS

25  SCROTUM:  SUBCUTANEOUS MEMBRANE OF SMOOTH MUSCLE, NO FAT ?  3º COOLER  MEDIAL SEPTUM DIVIDES IN TWO

26  BODY: ERECTILE TISSUE: PAIR OF COPORA CAVERNOSA AND CORPUS SPONGIOSUM  TUNICA ALBUGINEA GLANS: EXTERNAL URETHRAL ORIFICE  FORESKIN: PREPUCE

27  PARASYMPATHETIC NS RELEASES VASODILATOR N ITRIC ACID  DILATES ARTERIES  THIS CONSTRICTS VEINS ?  (BLOOD ENTERS AND PRESSURE BUILDS)  SYMPATHETIC NS CONTROLS EMISSION (PERISTALSIS) AND EJACULATION ERECTILE TISSUE STIMULATED, SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTS  BULBOURETHRAL FLUID FIRST, PROSTATE, SPERM, THEN SEMINAL VESSICLES

28  HYPOTHALAMUS  GnRH  GONADOTROPINS: LH/FSH  LH (ICSH IN MALES) : STIMUATES DEVELOPMENT OF INTERSTITIAL CELLS  FSH STIMULATES SUSTENACULAR CELLS  FSH AND TESTOSTERONE SPERMATOGENESIS  SUSTENACULAR CELLS PRODUCE INHIBIN PREVENTS OVERPRODUCTION OF FSH

29  ANDROGENS  MOSTLY BY INTERSTITIAL CELLS; SOME ?  TESTOSTERONE: STEROID HORMONE; CARRIED BY PLASMA PROTEINS TO RECEPTOR  IN PROSTATE, SEMINAL VESSICLES: CHANGED TO DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE TO FUNCTION  EXCESS CHANGED BY LIVER AND EXCRETED  PRODUCED AROUND BIRTH AND AT PUBERTY

30  8 WEEK EMBRYO:  FORMATION OF MALE GLANDS; TESTICULAR DECENSION LATER  PUBERTY:  MALE GLANDS GROW AND DEVELOP  SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS:  BODY HAIR; ADAM’S APPLE; THICKENING OF SKIN; MUSCULAR GROWTH: SHOULDERS AND WAIST; BONES THICKEN/STRENGTHEN; INCREASED METABOLISM; RELEASE OF ERYTHROPOIETIN;

31  HYPOTHALAMUS RELEASES GnRH TO ANTERIOR PITUITARY TO RELEASE LH TO INTERSTITIAL CELLS TO RELEASE TESTOSTERONE  NEGATIVE FEEDBACK  MALE CLIMATERIC: TESTOSTERONE DECREASES

32  FOR PRODUCTION AND MATURATION OF EGG  TRANSPORT FOR FERTILIZATION  ENVIRONMENT FOR EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT  BIRTH  FEMALE SEX HORMONES

33  3.5 x 2 x 1 cm  HELD BY LIGAMENTS:  BROAD LIGAMENT; SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT AND OVARIAN LIGAMENT  DESCEND TO PELVIC BRIM  MEDULLA AND CORTEX  MEDULLA: LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, BLOOD, NERVES, LYMPH,  CORTEX: OVARIAN FOLLICLES  TUNICA ALBUGINEA

34  EMBRYO: HAS ALL EGGS, MITOSIS: MORE OOGONIA  PRIMARY OOCYTES  PRIMARY OOCYTE COVERED BY FLATTENED EPITHELIAL CELLS= FOLLICULAR CELLS  PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLE; RESTS TILL PUBERTY  EMBRYO: SEVERAL MILLION EGGS  BIRTH: 1 MILLION  PUBERTY: 400,000  ~400 RELEASED  A FEW FERTILIZED

35  PUBERTY: A FEW STIMULATED TO GO THROUGH MEIOSIS  UNEVEN CYTOPLASMIC DIVISION = POLAR BODIES  IF FERTILIZED, SECONDARY OOCYTE DIVIDES TO FORM LAST POLAR BODY  PUBERTY: INCREASED PRODUCTION OF FSH  OVARIES ENLARGE  FSH STIMULATES SOME (UP TO 20) PRIMORDIAL OOCYTES TO MATURE, FOLLICULAR CELLS DIVIDE = GRANULOSA CELLS: STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM, ZONA PELLUCIDA (GLYCOPROTINE LAYER) FORMS  PRIMARY FOLLICLE

36  OVARIES DEVELOP:  INNER VASCULAR LAYER: THECA INTERNA: STEROID SECRETING CELLS  OUTER FIBROUS LAYER: THECA EXTERNA: CONNECTIVE TSSUE  FOLLICULAR CELLS PROLIFERATE: SECONDARY FOLLICLE  1 WEEK: DOMINANT FOLLICLE FORMS MATURES IN 10-14 DAYS TO GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE  SECONDARY OOCYTE DEVELOPS WITH THICK ZONA PELLUCIDA AND CORONA RADIATA OF FOLLICLE WHICH SUPPLIES NUTRIENTS TO OOCYTE

37  OVULATION: STIMULATED BY LH: CAUSES SWELLING & RUPTURE OF FOLLICLE  PICKED UP BY UTERINE TUBE: MUST BE FERTILIZED SHORTLY http://www.biog1105-1106.org/demos/105/unit8/media/ovary-schematic.jpg

38  UTERINE TUBES:  BROAD LIGAMENT  10 cm x.7 cm  INFUNDIBULUM WITH FIMBRIAE http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Gray589.png

39  7 x 5 cm x 2.5 cm  BROAD LIGAMENT COVERS  ROUND LIGAMENT TO PELVIC WALL  BODY  FUNDUS  CERVIX  CERVICAL ORIFICE  OSTIUM UTERI www.becomehealthynow.com/images/organs/reproduction/uterus_adnexa_bh.jpg

40  ENDOMETRIUM  MUCOSAL, COLUMNAR EPITHEILIUM, TUBULAR GLANDS  MYOMETRIUM  SMOOTH MUSCLE: LONGITUDINAL, CIRCULAR, SPIRAL  PERIMETRIUM

41 http://www.netterimages.com/

42  9 cm  FIBROMUSCULAR TUBE  ALLOWS SPERM IN/ BABY OUT  SURROUNDS CERVIX  VAGINAL ORIFICE: HYMEN  LAYERS  MUCOSAL: STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS, VAGINAL RUGAE, NO MUCOUS GLANDS  MUSCULAR: SMOOTH, LONGITUDINAL AND CIRCULAR; THIN STRIATED AT MOUTH ALSO BULBOSPONGIOSUS: CLOSED  FIBROUS: DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, ELASTIC FIBERS, CONNECTIONS

43  LABIA MAJORA  ENCLOSE PROTECT REST  SKIN, ADIPOSE TISSUE, SMOOTH MUSCLE  HAIR, SWEAT GLANDS  COVERS VAGINAL OPENINGS  LABIA MINORA  FLATTENED LONGITUDINAL FOLDS INSIDE  CONNECTIVE TISSUE, BLOOD VESSELS  STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

44  2cm, 0.5 cm  2 COLUMNS OF COPORA CAVERNOSA  SENSORY NERVE FIBERS

45  SPACE WITHIN LABIA MINORA  VESTIBULAR GLANDS/BARTHOLIN’S GLANDS  VESTIBULAR BULBS: VASCULAR ERECTILE TISSUE

46  SEXUAL STIMULATION  PARASYMPATHETIC NS  VASODILATOR NITRIC OXIDE  ERECTION  STIMULATES VESTIBULAR GLANDS TO RELEASE MUCUS  CLITORAL STIMULATION  ORGASM  REFLEXES IN SACRAL AND LUMBAR SPINAL CORD  CONTRACTION OF UTERINE TUBES AND UTERUS ?

47  ~10 YEARS: HYPOTHALAMUS  GnRH  ANTERIOR PITUITARY  FSH & LH   OVARIES, ADRENAL CORTEX, PLACENTA RELEASE HORMONES  ESTROGEN  ESTRADIOL MOSTLY, ESTRONE, ESTRIOL  PROGESTERONE  PUBERTY: OVARIES RELEASE ESTROGEN:  ENLARGEMENT OF OVARIES AND OTHER ORGANS

48  SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS  DEVELOPMENT OF BREASTS AND MAMMARY GLANDS  MORE ADIPOSE TISSUE  INCREASES VASCULARIZATION OF SKIN PROGESTERONE: FROM OVARIES: CHANGES IN ENDOMETRIUM LINING, MAMMARY GLANDS, RELEASE OF GONADOTROPINS ANDROGEN: FROM ADRENAL CORTEX: MORE HAIR, DEVELOPMENT OF SKELETON

49  FIRST: MENARCHE  HYPOTHALAMUS  GnRH  ANTERIOR PITUITARY  FSH & LH  FSH: MATURATION OF FOLLICLE; GRANULOSA CELLS  ESTROGEN AND SOME PROGESTERONE  LH  OVARIAN CELLS  PRECURSOR MOLECULES  ESTROGEN  INCREASING ESTROGEN LEVEL  PROLIFERATIVE STAGE: ENDOMETRIUM THICKENS AS FOLLICLE MATURES

50  DAY 14: ANTERIOR PITUITARY RELEASES LH  OVULATION  OLD FOLLICLE/THECA INTERNA  CORPUS LUTEUM: GLANDULAR  PROGESTERONE  DEVELOPS ENDOMETRIUM MORE & UTERINE GLANDS TO SECRETE GLYCOGEN AND LIPIDS: SECRETORY PHASE ??  HIGH ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE INHIBIT FSH & LH NO MORE FOLLICLE STIMULATION  IF NOT FERTILIZED: CORPUS LUTEUM  CORPUS ALBICANS: ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE DECREASE

51  BLOOD VESSELS CONSTRICT/LESS O2/ CELLS SLOUGH OFF: MENSES: DAY 28 FOR 3-5 DAYS  FSH AND LH INCREASE: NEW CYCLE

52  LATE 40/EARLY 50  IRREGULAR/MONTHS TO YEARS: ENDS  AGE OF OVARIES: FEW PRIMARY OOCYTES, FOLLICLES DON’T MATURE, NO OVULATION, LESS ESTROGEN EXCEPT FOR ADRENAL ESTROGEN; LESS PROGESTERONE  SECONDARY CHARACTERISTICS CHANGE: SHRINK  LOSS OF BONE, THINNING OF SKIN  50% NO SYMPTOMS; HOT FLASHES, MIGRAINES, FATIGUE, MUSCLE SORENESS

53  15-20 LOBES; DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE AND ADIPOSE TISSUE  ALVEOLAR GLANDS  ALVEOLAR DUCTS  LACTIFEROUS DUCT  NIPPLE  SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS

54  DETERMINED BY YOUR BELIEFS: WHEN IS THE DEVELOPING FETUS ALIVE?  COITUS INTERRUPTUS  RHYTHM METHOD  MECHANICAL BARRIERS  CONDOM: MALE; FEMALE  DIAPHRAGM  CERVICAL CAP  OFTEN WITH SPERMICIDAL JELLY

55  CHEMICAL BARRIER  SPERMICIDAL CREAMS, FOAMS, JELLIES,  HIGHER FAILURE RATE WHEN USED ALONE COMBINED HORMONE CONTRACEPTIVES ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE LIKE CHEMICAL RING: MONTH PLASTIC PATCH PILL MINIPILL DISRUPT FSH AND LH SECRETION USUALLY AROUND 100% INJECTABLE CONTRACEPTION – FOR 3 MONTHS INTRAUTERINE DEVICES SURGICAL METHODS VASECTOMY TUBAL LIGATION

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