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Lab 10: Reproductive System. Endocrine Review What is the structure that transports hormones from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland? What.

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Presentation on theme: "Lab 10: Reproductive System. Endocrine Review What is the structure that transports hormones from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland? What."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lab 10: Reproductive System

2 Endocrine Review What is the structure that transports hormones from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland? What is the function of parathyroid hormone?

3 Digestive Review What 2 structures are linked by the esophagus? Name two specialized structures in the digestive tract that increase the surface area available for reabsorption.

4 Announcements Next week- Final Lab Practical Review Lab Reports Due Today Final Lab Practical regular lab time two weeks from today.

5 Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction What is sexual reproduction? Compared to asexual reproduction –Advantages –Disadvantages

6 Chromosomes and “n” What is “n”? –Number of copies of each chromosome Difference between “n” and chromosome number. –Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes –Humans are 2n –Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes

7 Gametes and Zygotes Gametes –1N sex cells –Product of meiosis Zygote –2N fusion of gametes –Product of fertilization

8 Meiosis vs Mitosis Meiosis –Reduction division –Sexual division and formation of gametes Mitosis –Somatic cell division –Chromosome “n” number same in starting cell and end products

9 Sex organs and characteristics Primary Sex Organs Secondary Sex Organs Secondary Sex Characteristics

10 Overview- Male Reproductive Anatomy Testis Epididymis Vas Deferens Prostate Gland Seminal Vesicle Bulbourethral Gland Penis Urethra Glans Penis

11 Male Reproductive System

12 Scrotum Testis –Produce Sperm Epididymis –Stores Sperm and allows to mature Vas deferens –Connects epididymis to the seminal vessicles –Smooth muscles transport sperm to pelvic cavity

13 Semen Semen: fluid ejaculated by the male Components: –Sperm: 10% of semen –Prostrate Gland: 30% of semen –Seminal vesicle: 60% of semen –Secretions from the Bulbourethral gland Secretes fluid that lubricates tip of penis Neutralizes acid pH from urine

14 Penis –Delivers semen to the vagina Urethra –Tube that delivers semen out of body –What other system is this a part of??? Glans penis –Swollen head of the penis

15 Erection Cause –Increase Blood Flow / Vasodilation Activator –Sexual simulation –Nitric Oxide stimulates vasodilation

16 Overview- Female Reproductive System Ovary Fimbriae Uterine tubes Uterus Cervix Vagina

17 Female Reproductive System Ovary Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina

18 Egg development and Transport Ovary –Female gonads produce eggs Fimbriae –Feathery projections connect ovary to the uterine tube Uterine Tube –Delivers egg to the uterus

19 Uterus Thick muscular chamber Fertilized egg will attach to wall Harbors embryo Provides nutrition to embryo Expels fetus 3 layers: perimetrium, myometrium and endometrium

20 Birth Canal Cervix –Cylindrical inferior end of Uterus Vagina –Birth Canal –Receptor for the penis

21 Dynamic Human CD Anatomy

22 Spermatogenesis Primordial Germ Cell Mitosis Type A and Type B spermatogonium Type A retained Type B passes over blood-testis barrier and becomes Primary spermatocyte

23 Spermatogenesis Primary spermatocyte Meiosis I Secondary spermatocyte Meiosis II Spermatids Spermatogenesis Spermatozoa

24 Spermatogenesis

25 Oogenesis One cell type (Primary oocyte) 2n Meiosis first division –Secondary Oocyte (1n) –Polar body 1n (Degrades)

26 Secondary Oocyte No fertilization –Gets half way through meiosis 2 and dies Fertilization –Meiosis second division completes –Egg 1n (to be fertilized) –Polar body 1n (Degrades)

27 Oogenesis

28 Summary of Gamete Formation Spermatogenesis –1 primary spermatocyte produces 4 spermatozoa Oogenesis –1 primary oocyte produces 1 egg and two lost polar bodies

29 Dynamic Human CD Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

30 Ovarian Cycle (Egg maturation) Follicular –Lasts about 14 days –First 3-5 days  menstruation –Developing oocytes held in follicle, polar bodies die Ovulation –Day 14 –Oocyte released from follicle Luteal –About 14 days –Oocyte held in corpus luteum

31 Ovarian Cycle

32 Menstrual Cycle Proliferative –Rebuilding of endometrial tissue by mitosis Secretory –Thickening of endometrial tissue caused by secretion of nutrient-rich fluid Menstration –Blood, serous fluid and tissue discharge

33 Menstrual Cycle

34 Breast Cancer Cancer of the lymphatic vessels of the breast Caused by: –Excess weight –Smoking –Alcohol –Heredity Treatment –Lumpectomy –Partial mastectomy –Total mastectomy

35 Circumcision Prepuce is removed from Glans penis Done for hygienic reasons Largely deemed unnecessary today –Although???

36 Sterilization Males Vasectomy –Vas deferens severed Females Tubal ligation –Division of uterine tubes

37 Cat dissection Sex the cat Female –Ovary –Uterine horns –Body of uterus Male –Scrotum –Testes –Carefully remove the connective tissue surrounding the testes  epididymis  vas deferens - Penis

38 Review Reproductive anatomy Meiosis and Gamete formation Identification of anatomy of cats Lab Practical Review Next Week during normal lab time. Final Lab Practice two weeks from today


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