Presentation on theme: "Lab 10: Reproductive System. Endocrine Review What is the structure that transports hormones from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland? What."— Presentation transcript:
Lab 10: Reproductive System
Endocrine Review What is the structure that transports hormones from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland? What is the function of parathyroid hormone?
Digestive Review What 2 structures are linked by the esophagus? Name two specialized structures in the digestive tract that increase the surface area available for reabsorption.
Announcements Next week- Final Lab Practical Review Lab Reports Due Today Final Lab Practical regular lab time two weeks from today.
Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction What is sexual reproduction? Compared to asexual reproduction –Advantages –Disadvantages
Chromosomes and “n” What is “n”? –Number of copies of each chromosome Difference between “n” and chromosome number. –Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes –Humans are 2n –Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes
Gametes and Zygotes Gametes –1N sex cells –Product of meiosis Zygote –2N fusion of gametes –Product of fertilization
Meiosis vs Mitosis Meiosis –Reduction division –Sexual division and formation of gametes Mitosis –Somatic cell division –Chromosome “n” number same in starting cell and end products
Sex organs and characteristics Primary Sex Organs Secondary Sex Organs Secondary Sex Characteristics
Overview- Male Reproductive Anatomy Testis Epididymis Vas Deferens Prostate Gland Seminal Vesicle Bulbourethral Gland Penis Urethra Glans Penis
Male Reproductive System
Scrotum Testis –Produce Sperm Epididymis –Stores Sperm and allows to mature Vas deferens –Connects epididymis to the seminal vessicles –Smooth muscles transport sperm to pelvic cavity
Semen Semen: fluid ejaculated by the male Components: –Sperm: 10% of semen –Prostrate Gland: 30% of semen –Seminal vesicle: 60% of semen –Secretions from the Bulbourethral gland Secretes fluid that lubricates tip of penis Neutralizes acid pH from urine
Penis –Delivers semen to the vagina Urethra –Tube that delivers semen out of body –What other system is this a part of??? Glans penis –Swollen head of the penis
Female Reproductive System Ovary Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina
Egg development and Transport Ovary –Female gonads produce eggs Fimbriae –Feathery projections connect ovary to the uterine tube Uterine Tube –Delivers egg to the uterus
Uterus Thick muscular chamber Fertilized egg will attach to wall Harbors embryo Provides nutrition to embryo Expels fetus 3 layers: perimetrium, myometrium and endometrium
Birth Canal Cervix –Cylindrical inferior end of Uterus Vagina –Birth Canal –Receptor for the penis
Dynamic Human CD Anatomy
Spermatogenesis Primordial Germ Cell Mitosis Type A and Type B spermatogonium Type A retained Type B passes over blood-testis barrier and becomes Primary spermatocyte
Spermatogenesis Primary spermatocyte Meiosis I Secondary spermatocyte Meiosis II Spermatids Spermatogenesis Spermatozoa
Oogenesis One cell type (Primary oocyte) 2n Meiosis first division –Secondary Oocyte (1n) –Polar body 1n (Degrades)
Secondary Oocyte No fertilization –Gets half way through meiosis 2 and dies Fertilization –Meiosis second division completes –Egg 1n (to be fertilized) –Polar body 1n (Degrades)
Summary of Gamete Formation Spermatogenesis –1 primary spermatocyte produces 4 spermatozoa Oogenesis –1 primary oocyte produces 1 egg and two lost polar bodies
Dynamic Human CD Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
Ovarian Cycle (Egg maturation) Follicular –Lasts about 14 days –First 3-5 days menstruation –Developing oocytes held in follicle, polar bodies die Ovulation –Day 14 –Oocyte released from follicle Luteal –About 14 days –Oocyte held in corpus luteum
Menstrual Cycle Proliferative –Rebuilding of endometrial tissue by mitosis Secretory –Thickening of endometrial tissue caused by secretion of nutrient-rich fluid Menstration –Blood, serous fluid and tissue discharge
Breast Cancer Cancer of the lymphatic vessels of the breast Caused by: –Excess weight –Smoking –Alcohol –Heredity Treatment –Lumpectomy –Partial mastectomy –Total mastectomy
Circumcision Prepuce is removed from Glans penis Done for hygienic reasons Largely deemed unnecessary today –Although???