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Introduction Olive oil is produced from the tree, Olea europaea. Olives are mostly grown in the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia Minor. Olive oil.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Olive oil is produced from the tree, Olea europaea. Olives are mostly grown in the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia Minor. Olive oil."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction Olive oil is produced from the tree, Olea europaea. Olives are mostly grown in the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia Minor. Olive oil has a wide range of therapeutic and culinary applications (Waterman & Lockwood, 2007). It is also a major part of the Mediterranean diet, in which olive oil is the main source of dietary fat. Olive oil is famed for “protecting the heart, reducing the risk of cancer, lessening symptoms of arthritis, and controlling blood sugar” (Turner, 2008). History The production of olive oil dates back to the ancient Greeks. According to mythology, “The goddess Athena, in a fierce competition with the god Poseidon to be the patron deity of Athens, presented the city the very first olive tree” (Turner, 2008). The city’s king, Cecrops, accepted the tree, which brought wood, oil, and food to the Mediterranean basin. With olive trees covering the Mediterranean, the Greeks discovered that pressing the fruit yielded an oil (2008). The oil was infused with aromatic herbs and fragrances, and used to cover the body. This served as a sign of strength and longevity. Health Benefits (Cicerale, Conlan, Sinclair, & Keast, 2009) Effects on Plasma Lipoproteins Found to favorably alter the proportion of LDL and HDL levels Increases levels of HDL and lower levels of LDL Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease Effect on Oxidative Damage to DNA Significantly reduces DNA oxidation Reduction in DNA oxidation leads to possible cancer prevention Effects on Markers of Inflammation Has an anti-inflammatory effect Decreases inflammatory processes that are associated in the development of various chronic diseases (i.e. cardiovascular disease) Leads to lowered risk rates for various inflammatory diseases Effects on Platelet Function Inhibits platelet aggregation Prevents damage to the vascular epithelium and the development of lesions Leads to lowered risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis Effects on Cellular Function Improves cell integrity and viability Inhibits cell proliferation and unnecessary cell growth Decreases risk of cancer Ways to use olive oil Cooking purposes (i.e. salad dressings, deep frying, etc.) Personal care (i.e. skin moisturizer) Natural remedies Nutritional Comparison Olive Oil Carolyn Smith Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Concordia College, Moorhead, MN References Cicerale, S., Conlan, X. A., Sinclair, A. J., & Keast, R. (2009). Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 49, Flynn, M. M., & Reinert, S. E. (2010). Comparing an olive oil-enriched diet to a standard lower- fat diet for eight loss in breast cancer survivors: A pilot study. Journal of Women’s Health, 19, Perez-Jimenez, F. (2005). International conference on healthy effect of virgin olive oil. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 35, Pollard, C. (2009). What is so valuable about the Mediterranean diet? Nutridate, 20, 2-5. Turner, L. (2008). The epic tale of olive oil: Reap the health and culinary benefits of this mythic elixir. Better Nutrition, Vossen, P. (2007). Olive oil: History, production and characteristics of the world’s classic oils. HortScience, 42, Waterman, E. & Lockwood, B. (2007). Active components and clinical applications of olive oil. Alternative Medicine Review, 12, Consuming olive oil on a regular basis is also associated with healthier ageing and increased longevity (Perez-Jimenez, 2005). The Romans are credited with first using the oil as a condiment, using it to counteract poisons, heal wounds, and treat digestive problems (2008). The Mediterranean Diet The Mediterranean diet refers to the diet of Greece, Spain, and Italy. This diet consists of eight components (Pollard, 2009): 1.High monounsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio 2.Moderate ethanol (alcohol) consumption 3.High consumption of legumes 4.High consumption of plain cereal foods 5.High consumption of fruits 6.High consumption of vegetables 7.Low consumption of meat and meat products 8.Moderate consumption of milk This dietary pattern consists of eating a variety of cooked and fresh vegetables. Olive oil is used as a dressing on various salads. The Mediterranean diet highlights the importance of the type of fat eaten, as well as the amount eaten in protecting against disease (2009). Olive oil, the primary fat in the Mediterranean diet, is high in monounsaturated fatty acids and oleic acid. Both of these components provide numerous health benefits for the body. Olive Oil-Enriched Diet (Flynn & Reinert, 2010) Background: Traditional diets that consist of moderate to high intakes of extra virgin olive oil have been related to a decrease risk in breast cancer This study compared weight loss due to a standard diet and an olive oil-enriched diet in women previously diagnosed with invasive breast cancer Methods: Participants consumed a National Cancer Institute diet and a plant- based olive oil diet for 8 weeks, each assigned randomly Weight loss goal of at least 5% of baseline weight After completion of the two diet trials, each participant self-selected one of the diets for an additional 6 months Conclusions Olive oil-enriched diet contributed to a greater weight loss than a lower-fat diet in an 8-week period Olive oil-enriched diet may be more effective for weight loss in breast cancer survivors than a standard lower-fat diet Production (Vossen, 2007) To produce high-quality oil, the olives need to be harvested without breaking the fruit skins Fruit should be processed within 12 to 24 hours of harvesting Olives are crushed, using a stone mill or hammer mill, to break the cells and release the oil for extraction Malaxation is done to prepare the paste for separation of the oil Lastly, oil is extracted from the solids and fruit- water Fig. 1: A typical Olea europaea tree Fig. 2: Ancient Egyptian art Results 28 of 44 women completed the 44-week protocol 12 of the 15 women who started with the olive oil-enriched diet achieved a weight loss of 5% 4 of 13 women who started the National Cancer Institute diet achieved a weight loss of 5% 19 of 22 participants who qualified for the follow-up study chose the olive oil-enriched diet CharacteristicsMeanRange Age (years)59.2± BMI (kg/m²)27.9± Percent body fat41.6± Percent fat-free mass58.6± Waist (cm)87.1± Hip (cm)108.4± Weight gain from age 18 years (kg) 17.3± Table 1 : Baseline Characteristics of 28 participants completing two 8-week periods of weight loss NCIPBOO Body weight (kg)-2.7± ±1.9 Body weight (%)-3.9± ±2.4 Waist (cm)-2.6± ±3.2 Hip (cm)-1.8± ±2.5 Body fat (%)-1.4± ±1.8 Fat-free mass (%)+1.1± ±1.8 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 188±19191±21 HDL-C (mg/dL)64±1368±12 LDL-C (mg/dL)103±18103±22 Table 2: Anthropometrics and laboratory variables for 28 participants completing the two 8-week periods of weight loss Olive OilVegetable Oil Serving Size1 Tbsp Calories120 Fat Calories120 Total Fat14g Saturated Fat2g Trans Fat0g Polyunsaturated Fat 28g Monounsaturated Fat 10g3g Table 3: Nutritional Comparison between 1 serving of olive oil and 1 serving of vegetable oil Conclusions Consumption of olive oil on a regular basis can provide multiple health benefits, such as: reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, lower incidence of chronic degenerative diseases, and reduced risk of morbidity (Cicerale, Conlan, Sinclair, & Keast, 2009) An olive oil-enriched diet can lead to greater weight loss than a low- fat diet Olive oil has a wide range of therapeutic and culinary applications (Waterman & Lockwood, 2007)


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