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Watching the Waist of the Protocol Hourglass Steve Deering cisco.com TERENA Network Conf., Antalya Turkey May 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "Watching the Waist of the Protocol Hourglass Steve Deering cisco.com TERENA Network Conf., Antalya Turkey May 2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 Watching the Waist of the Protocol Hourglass Steve Deering cisco.com TERENA Network Conf., Antalya Turkey May 2001

2 WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP ethernet PPP… CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio...

3  Why an internet layer? make a bigger network global addressing virtualize network to isolate end-to-end protocols from network details/changes  Why a single internet protocol? maximize interoperability minimize number of service interfaces  Why a narrow internet protocol? assumes least common network functionality to maximize number of usable networks WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP ethernet PPP… CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio... Why the Hourglass Architecture?

4 Why Am I Talking About Watching the Waist?  Invited talk is an opportunity for navel gazing  It happens on reaching middle age (me & IP)  The IP layer is the only layer small enough for me to get my arms around  I am worried about how the architecture is being damaged: the waste of the hourglass  The hourglass theme offers many bad puns

5 WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP + mcast + QoS +... ethernet PPP… CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio... Putting on Weight requires more functionality from underlying networks

6 WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP 4 IP 6 ethernet PPP… CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio... Mid-Life Crisis doubles number of service interfaces requires changes above & below creates interoper- ability problems

7 WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP ethernet PPP… CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio... Oops! An Accident NATs & ALGs used to glue the broken pieces lots of kinds of new glue being invented—ruins predictability some apps remain broken, since repairs are incomplete

8 WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP ATM ethernet bluetooth CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio... Threat- ened by Youths danger : creeping dependencies on specific link- layers inhibit flexibility and evolution will never fully supplant IP, so end up with complicated hybrid & multiple address plans

9 But Still Supple IP-over-IP tunneling has become more and more common this is not so bad: retains benefits of hourglass model WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP ethernet PPP… CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio...

10 More Fattening Temptations  TCP “helpers”  reliable multicast assists  packet-intercepting caches  “content-based routing”  active networking WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP + ? + ?... ethernet PPP… CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio...

11 Lost Features of the Internet  transparency  robustness through “fate sharing”  dynamic routing  portable addresses  unique addresses  stable addresses  connectionless service  always-on service  peer-to-peer communication model  application independence

12 Below-the-Waist Bulge  mostly reinventing, badly, what IP already does (or could do): VLANs LANE (LAN emulation / “interworking”) layer 2 tunneling protocols MPLS, PPPoE,… (“layer 2.5”)  lower layers mostly seem to just make IP’s job harder cells, circuits, QoS, multicast, large clouds, opaque clouds

13 Obfuscation  In case all this didn’t make the network manager’s job hard enough… we renamed bridges to switches we renamed routers to switches we now have “multilayer switches” and “layerless switches”

14 Entropy or Evolution?  looks like the normal entropy (decay) that besets all large, engineered systems over time  don’t know where/how to reapply energy to fight the entropy  less worrisome to view as evolution instead the Internet as an evolving lifeform or ecosystem? just let nature (the market) take its course though result is undesigned and unpredictable, should not be viewed as decay

15 WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP 6 copper fiber radio... Survival of the Fittest? may evolve from an hourglass to a wineglass early signs: IP-over-SONET, IP-over-WDM need IPv6 to restore simplicity and functionality

16 Only Time Will Tell…


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