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COS 461 Fall 1997 Networks and Protocols u networks and protocols –definitions –motivation –history u protocol hierarchy –reasons for layering –quick tour.

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Presentation on theme: "COS 461 Fall 1997 Networks and Protocols u networks and protocols –definitions –motivation –history u protocol hierarchy –reasons for layering –quick tour."— Presentation transcript:

1 COS 461 Fall 1997 Networks and Protocols u networks and protocols –definitions –motivation –history u protocol hierarchy –reasons for layering –quick tour through the layers u main example: the Internet

2 COS 461 Fall 1997 Networks u A network is a set of machines connected by communication links. u Machines can be –general-purpose computers –other devices (phones, Coke machines) –specialized network components »routers »switches

3 COS 461 Fall 1997 Motivation u Why connect to a network? –share resources –help people communicate u Sharing resources –from printers to supercomputer centers u Helping people communicate – , Web, active documents

4 COS 461 Fall 1997 Direct connectivity u point-to-point or multiple access point-to-point network multiple access network

5 COS 461 Fall 1997 Media u links can use many physical media –copper wire –optical fiber –radio –infrared –line-of-sight laser –layer on another network »example: modem connection uses phone network

6 COS 461 Fall 1997 Copper Wires vs. Optical Fibers u advantages of fiber –higher bandwidth –smaller and lighter –less prone to interference –less prone to eavesdropping u advantages of copper –simple –cheap to interface to

7 COS 461 Fall 1997 Topologies ringbus star mesh

8 COS 461 Fall 1997 Network elements u Intranet: many elements in one administrative domain u Internet: collection of interconnected networks, across administrative domains u host: a computer on the net u router: host that routes packets from one link to another –often dedicated, with no applications

9 COS 461 Fall 1997 Circuit Switching u example: telephony u resources reserved during call setup u resources dedicated for duration of call u conservative –guarantee quality of service to all calls –resources dedicated even if call doesn’t always need them –good for constant-bit-rate traffic

10 COS 461 Fall 1997 Circuit Switching

11 COS 461 Fall 1997 Packet Switching u alternative to circuit switching –example: Internet u entering data divided into packets u packets in network share resources –no performance guarantees u queue packets if link contention u statistical multiplexing of resources

12 COS 461 Fall 1997 Packet Switching

13 COS 461 Fall 1997 Packet Switching in the Internet local net

14 COS 461 Fall 1997 Virtual Circuit u cross between circuit switching and packet switching u set up path before data flows u resources along path are shared u example: asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) u cheaper than circuit switching, better guarantees than packet switching u but: complicated

15 COS 461 Fall 1997 History of Networking u 1870’s –circuit-switched phone network u 1960’s –packet-switched data networks –4-node ARPAnet in 1969 u 1970’s –multiple-access nets (Aloha, Ethernet) –commercial nets (DECnet, IBM SNA) –100-node ARPAnet in 1979

16 COS 461 Fall 1997 History of Networking u 1980’s –proliferation of LANs, WANs –100k-node Internet in 1989 u 1990’s –4M-node Internet in 1995 –commercialization »ISPs –wireless LANs

17 COS 461 Fall 1997 Layering in Networks u simplify complex engineering –layer N relies on services of layer N-1 –layer N provides services to layer N+1 u interfaces between layers define services u hide complexity –separate implementation from interface

18 COS 461 Fall 1997 Layered Protocols layer N+1 abstract view of layer N layer N

19 COS 461 Fall 1997 Protocol u a protocol specifies: –a set of rules for how network elements interact –the format of the messages exchanged –actions to take on receipt of messages u specifications must be exact u interoperability: ability of different implementations to work together

20 COS 461 Fall 1997 Protocol Hierarchy u “official” seven-layer model –usually taught and memorized –seldom used except as terminology u in practice, Internet uses four-layer model –focus on this model in this course u top to bottom: application layer, transport layer, network layer, data link layer

21 COS 461 Fall 1997 Application Layer u process-to-process communication u supports application functionality u examples –file transfer protocol (FTP) –simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) –hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) –network news transfer protocol (NNTP) u you can add your own

22 COS 461 Fall 1997 Transport Layer u transmission control protocol (TCP) –provides reliable byte stream service –flow control –congestion control u user datagram protocol (UDP) –provides unreliable unordered datagram service

23 COS 461 Fall 1997 Network Layer u Internet protocol (IP) –the key to the architecture –can use many different data links layers –treats each network in the Internet as a link –no quality of service guarantee –can lose and misorder packets –“best effort” service

24 COS 461 Fall 1997 Data Link/Physical Layer u comes from underlying network –Ethernet –ATM –phone/modem –you can (in theory) build your own

25 COS 461 Fall 1997 Internet Hierarchy FTPHTTPSMTPDNSFinger TCPUDP IP EthernetATMmodemSHRIMP application layer transport layer network layer data link layer


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