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Structure and Function

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1 Structure and Function
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Structure and Function

2 System Overview The digestive system is responsible for breaking down food into a state in which it can be absorbed into the blood stream. It starts in the mouth, where chewing and saliva initially break down food. The stomach churns it and turn it into chyme, sending it then to the small intestine. The small intestine lets blood absorb nutrients from the food and the large intestine removes water from the food, making solid stool. The rectum then takes the stool and the anus controls its release. We will go into more depth in this presentation.

3 The Mouth The mouth is where the digestive system begins.
It chews food and combines it with saliva which brings it to a form that is easier for your stomach to break down.

4 Esophagus The esophagus starts in the throat, or pharynx.
It then proceeds to trachea and then into the stomach in the abdomen region. Its main purpose is to move chewed food from the mouth to the stomach. The food is delivered to the stomach by a series of muscular contractions also known as peristalsis. It plays no purpose in actually absorbing food.

5 Stomach The stomach receives Bolus, or chewed food, from the esophagus and excretes acids and enzymes that break down the food. Peristalsis is the process of churning that the stomach does to help break down food. It releases proteases, which are enzymes that break down protein. The stomach is located in the upper part of the abdominal cavity, between the small intestine and esophagus.

6 Small Intestine The small intestine is a 22 foot long tube that turns the semi digested matter in the stomach into a liquid form so nutrients can be extracted. The broken down food in the stomach enters the small intestine through a valve that lets it in. In the liquid state, the small intestine takes out nutrients from food that the body uses. The small intestine uses enzymes from the pancreas. It also uses bile from the liver to help break down food.

7 Colon The colon is also known as the large intestine.
It is six feet in length. The main function of the colon is to prepare the waste for excretion of the body. The colon takes the liquid stool from the small intestine and in the end turns it into a solid state. The colon takes out the water from stool so it becomes solid and stores it. Usually about once or twice per day, a “movement” of the bowels occur and the stored solid stool will move into the rectum, where it is released. The colon is broken into three main parts; ascending, transverse, and descending. The ascending colon and descending go vertical, while the transverse is horizontal.

8 Rectum/Anus The rectum is an eight inch chamber that receives solid waste from the end of the descending colon. It hold the stool for a brief period of time, before the sphincter muscles of the anus release, letting the stool go out of the body. The role of the rectum and anus is to release waste from the body. They have no real purpose in the actual absorption of nutrients.

9 Gallbladder The gallbladder is located under the liver and releases bile that helps the body break down fatty food. It can sense when fatty food enters the stomach, and thus releases liquids that help break down the fats. It is about eight inches in length and four inches in diameter.

10 The Liver The liver is the vital organ located above the stomach that is responsible for filtering toxins from food. It also provides the stomach with bile which helps it break down fatty foods. This makes the gallbladder a non-vital organ, while the liver is a vital organ.

11 Pancreas The pancreas is located at the end of the stomach, near the opening of the small intestine. It excretes enzymes that help in the digestion of food. It also serves a purpose in excreting hormones directly into the bloodstream.

12 Digestive System Disorders and Diseases!
By Vinny Fushetto

13 Appendicitis Appendicitis is an irritation, inflammation, and infection of the appendix. Appendicitis isnt a really important part of the immune system but if infected can cause death. The appendix can rupture 48 to 72 hours if you don’t get medical attention fast enough. If you feel pain by your appendix make sure you seek medical attention.

14 Celiac Disease Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine. Because of a sensitivity to gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. This disease interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food. If you eat gluten this disease damages your small intestines.

15 Crohns Disease Is a disease where an inflammatory bowel disease that is a extreme condition that may occur at various times over a lifetime. Crohn's disease is also called ileitis or enteritis. It damages the smaller intestine. In some cases the small and large intestines are damaged.

16 Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids are blood vessels, that are in and around the anus and lower rectum, that have become swollen due to stretching and pressure. These are very common in both men and women, and about half the population have hemorrhoids by age 50. This isnt a life threatening disease. Very common in pregnant women.

17 Gastritis Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining.
Drinking to much alcohol and smoking and eating spicy food is what can give you this disease. There are many different ways that cause this disorder but these are just some of them. Stay away from consuming to much of these items if you don’t want this disease.

18 Stomach Cancer Is cancer that starts in any part of the stomach.
It is also called gastric cancer. This is a very life threatening disease. A lot of people in America pass away each year from this disease. The earlier it is found and treated the better.

19 Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is a stomach disorder in which the stomach takes too long emptying out everything. If food remains in the stomach for too long, it can cause problems such as bacterial overgrowth from the food sitting. The food can also harden in to solid masses called, bezoars which may cause vomiting or nausea.

20 Ulcers An ulcer is an open sore, or lesion, usually found on the skin or mucous membrane areas of the body. About 25 million Americans develop at least one ulcer during their lifetime. 5 Million people get affected each year due to ulcers. Stomach ulcers are called gastric ulcers There are many different palaces that you can have ulcers.

21 Gallstones Gallstones are hard, pebble-like deposits that form inside the gallbladder. Gallstones may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Gallstones are usually discovered in an annual x-ray. This is not a life threatening disease.

22 Part 3 – Lindsey Bernoskie
Sudden Illnesses/ First Aid/ Emergency of the Digestive System Part 3 – Lindsey Bernoskie

23 Pictures!

24 What are the most common sudden illnesses in the Digestive System?
Hiccups Heartburn/Acid Reflux Throw up Diarrhea

25 Useful Terms 2 Coughing - an important way to keep your throat and airways clear. However, excessive coughing may mean you have an underlying problem. Endoscope - a procedure that uses a lighted, flexible endoscope to see inside the upper GI tract. Dysentery- an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, especially of the colon, that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and/or blood in the feces with fever and abdominal pain. Dysbiosis- poor digestive function Leaky Gut Syndrome- the name given for the condition that allows larger food particles to pass through the gut wall.

26 Useful Terms Diarrhea- is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day. Hiccups - is an esophageal contraction of the diaphragm that repeats several times per minute. Digestive System - is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components that can be absorbed into a blood stream, for instance. Heartburn- also known as acid reflux, is a painful and burning sensation in the esophagus, just behind the breastbone, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric acid. Irritable bowel syndrome refers to a disorder of the lower intestinal tract. It involves abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements. Emotional stress often makes the symptoms worse.

27 Hiccups Causes of hiccups Prevention of Hiccups DON’T: Eating too much
What is a hiccup? A Hiccup is defined as the involuntary contraction of the diaphragm — the muscle that separates your chest from your abdomen and plays an important role in breathing. Causes of hiccups Eating too much Drinking carbonated beverages Excessive consumption of alcohol Sudden temperature changes Excitement or emotional stress Prevention of Hiccups DON’T: - Eat large meals - Drink carbonated beverages or alcohol - Have Sudden changes in temperature

28 Hiccups Continued FUN FACT :In 2007, a teenager from Washington State in the United States hiccuped around 50 times a minute for more than five weeks. After her hiccups returned, her neurologist suggested that she may have Tourettes syndrome, and the hiccups may be a "tic" caused by Tourette's

29 Heartburn/ Acid Reflux
Acid Reflux and Heartburn is defined as: A common condition and an abnormal one in which acid in the stomach rises up into the esophagus. Prevention -People with heartburn should avoid or reduce consumption of foods and beverages that contain caffeine, chocolate, peppermint, spearmint, and alcohol. - Physicians often advise patients with Acid Reflux to cut down on fatty foods. - Increasing protein may help strengthen -Whole grain products -Eat fruits and vegetables, although avoid acidic vegetables and fruits Symptoms Burping Nausea after eating Stomach fullness or bloating Upper abdominal pain and discomfort

30 This is a picture of acid reflux - which is the burning in or around your stomach from eating food.  Diarrhea causes death amongst young children and is just too much water in the stool. Diarrhea could also lead to dehydration. 

31 Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as: A familiar phenomenon with unusually frequent or unusually liquid bowel movements, excessive watery evacuations of fecal material. How to treat Diarrhea? -Drinking lots of fluids -Eat probiotic yogurt. -BRAT diet: bananas, rice, apples or applesauce, and dry toast. -Avoid diarrhea medications What are Causes of Diarrhea? Viruses Bacteria and parasites Medications Lactose Fructose  Artificial sweeteners Surgery  Symptoms of Diarrhea? -Frequent, loose, watery stools -Abdominal cramps -Abdominal pain -Fever -Blood in the stool -Bloating

32 Throw Up/ Vomit Throw up or vomit is defined as:To eject part or all of the contents of the stomach through the mouth, usually in a series of involuntary spasmic movements. Causes of Vomiting: -central causes (signals from the brain) -association with another illnesses -medications and medical treatments Symptoms Of Vomiting: -Involuntary expulsion of food from mouth and nose -Increased saliva -Dizziness -Light-headedness -Difficulty in swallowing food or liquid -Changes in skin temperature -Increase in heartbeat rate -Increased sensitivity to certain smells -Changes in the taste of some foods Prevention: DON’T EAT FAST or FOODS YOU DON’T LIKE

33 Vomiting Continued Vomiting (known medically as emesis and informally as throwing up) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.

34 If you have any of these problems:
Call Mom or Dad for help Try the prevention tips Lastly, get help and call 911 if these problems don’t stop

35 The End

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